All Submitted Issues
Status: Pending LinguisticUnit Domain and Range Restrictions
orderingRelation (GOLD-2008) 2009-06-16 17:35:36

The rdfs:comment on gold:orderingRelation states it to be "Any relation that establishes a linear ordering of linguistic units", yet neither its rdfs:domain nor its rdfs:range is restricted to gold:LinguisticUnit. This is either misleading if "linguistic unit" in the comment does not refer to gold:LinguisticUnit or the respective restrictions are missing, or do I miss something?

Status: Pending Bininj Gunwok example for vegetable gender - Dunstan Brown
VegetableGender (GOLD-2008) 2009-09-16 09:06:50

Blackfoot example of plural number and animate gender.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
man- me man- mak
III- food VEG- good
good food

Mithun (1999:99) FROM Frantz (1991:8-9)

Comment: the example is from Bininj Gunwok but the references refer to other languages.

III- food VEG- good
good food

Mithun (1999:99) FROM Frantz (1991:8-9)

Comment: the example is from Bininj Gunwok but the references refer to other languages.

Status: Pending Needs example
QuantificationalAspect (GOLD-2008) 2009-12-18 14:31:55

Needs a definition

Definition added 5/13 by E.Wicks from 2005 E-meld conference

definition ok, ER, 06/05/2010

needs example, ER, 06/05/2010

Status: Pending Wrong parent? - Anthony Aristar
Retracted (GOLD-2008) 2009-12-18 14:36:09

It is not clear whether Retracted is a LabialProperty. From the literature it does not appear to be. A different parent should be considered, e.g. MannerProperty.

Status: Pending Needs better definition - Anthony Aristar
OrthographicPart (GOLD-2010) 2010-01-29 10:47:53

This concept needs a better definition which explains the term in a better way and also why the concept is necessary.

Status: Pending Needs better definition - Anthony Aristar
OrthographicPhrase (GOLD-2010) 2010-01-29 10:48:22

This concept needs a better definition which explains the term in a better way and also why the concept is necessary.

Status: Pending Needs better definition - Anthony Aristar
OrthographicSentence (GOLD-2010) 2010-01-29 10:48:50

This concept needs a better definition which explains the term in a better way and also why the concept is necessary.

Status: Pending Needs better definition - Anthony Aristar
OrthographicWord (GOLD-2010) 2010-01-29 10:49:32

This concept needs a better definition which explains the term in a better way and also why the concept is necessary.

Status: Pending Attested? - Anthony Aristar
PreferredEvaluative (GOLD-2010) 2010-01-29 12:36:28

Is there a language in which this is found? If so, an example would be helpful.

Status: Pending Attested? - Anthony Aristar
EpistemicPossibilityModality (GOLD-2010) 2010-02-02 14:11:20

Is this concept really needed? Do any languages use this?

Status: Pending Add minorative
SuperlativeAdjective (GOLD-2008) 2009-12-18 14:48:49

Needs a definition
Dixon 2004, Wetzer 1996, The Typology of Adjectival Predication suggested as source by working group 4 report (CB 3-19)
Definition added by CB 3-26 - status changed to pending
Needs to be approved. (didn't use sources recommended by working group - sources have not arrived yet...may need to be modified)

- take out 'lowest', a concept for the minorative will need to be added, please look into that, Tony was not sure whether the standard term is minorative, might be slightly different, Evelyn has to do SQL magic to add a concept, so send the correct term and a definition to Evelyn by email when you have it, ER, 4/2/10

Tony needs to add minorative, ER, 6/28/2010 (Helen did not seem adamant about that)

Status: Denied Distinguishing grammatical case from semantic case? - Christian Chiarcos
CaseProperty (GOLD-2008) 2010-03-29 14:18:01

The current definition of CaseProperty (with reference to seems to apply to both "grammatical case" (e.g., ErgativeCase) and "semantic case" (e.g., MalefactiveCase). Although this can be justified given the usage of "case" in the literature (e.g., the traditional, morphosyntactic concept of case vs. Fillmore's case roles 1966), this design decision conceals a difference that is crucial to modern annotation schemes used for the development of NLP tools. If GOLD is intended to be suitable for corpus linguists, computational linguists and NLP engineers, as well, this difference should be made explicit, e.g., by distinguishing GrammaticalCaseProperty from SemanticCaseProperty.

The suggested differentiation between grammatical case and "non-grammatical case" was previously implemented in the TDS Ontology (
In annotation schemes for inflectional languages, e.g., German, grammatical case is modelled as an aspect of morphology (e.g., Brants et al. 2005,, whereas semantic roles are modelled as an aspect of frame annotation (e.g., Burchard et al. 2006,

Status: Pending Numeral is Determiner? - Christian Chiarcos
Quantifier (GOLD-2008) 2010-03-29 14:34:11

The current hierarchical organization of Numeral as compared to Determiner is problematic:

- Numeral is-a Quantifier (this is correct with respect to the semantic characteristics of Quantifiers and Numerals)
- Quantifier is-a Determiner (this is correct with respect to the *syntactic* characteristics of quantifying determiners)

However, in the following sentences, "three" is hardly a Determiner, but rather, the head of an NP. According to its semantics, however, it is clearly a Numeral:

(1) There were *three* of them.

(2) Wir sind die *drei* von der Tankstelle. (German)
we are the *three* from the gas.station

One may consider to promote Quantifier to a top-level category in order to distangle semantically-determined parts of speech (e.g., quantifier, numeral) from syntactically-determined parts of speech (e.g., determiner).

In existing annotation schemes for parts of speech, there normally is no category "Quantifier", but rather, Quantifiers are grouped together with "indefinite determiner" (for quantifying determiners, e.g., "some", "any") or "indefinite pronouns" (for [pro]nominal quantifiers, e.g., "someone", "anybody"), cf. Wilson and Leech (1996, An explicit Quantifier concept entails the above-mentioned problems.

Status: Pending lexical item refers to "dictionary" which is not defined - Jan Odijk
LexicalItem (GOLD-2009) 2010-04-26 04:56:29

The concept "LexicalItem" refers to "dictionary", which is not defined in GOLD, and it does not mention Lexicon at all, though a Lexicon is defined as a set of LexicalItems.

Suggestion: replace "dictionary" in the definition by "Lexicon"

Status: Pending Unicode problems
PhysicalAbilitiveModality (GOLD-2009) 2010-06-03 16:03:25

Example has boxes instead of unicode characters. Unapproved example. Ordered source (Palmer 2001). ER, 06/03/2010

Unicode seems to be working now - Matt 10/27/2010

Status: Pending Parent needs to be reconsidered - Anthony Aristar
Adjectival (GOLD-2009) 2010-06-04 14:00:04

It should be reconsidered whether Adjectival should be a child of Predicator, because this seems to be theory-specific and not general. Adjectives exhibit very diverse behaviors in the world's languages.

Status: Pending Not all copula are verbal - Anthony Aristar
Copula (GOLD-2009) 2010-06-05 18:37:22

It is wrong to classify copula as a child of verbal. There are non-verbal copula such as pronoun and particle copula as well as zero copula as shown in the examples. Hence, this classification should be reconsidered.

Changed 'verb' in definition to elements

Also noticed the source for this is Stassen 2008 - We have Stassen 2005 in the bibliography but not 2008. Is the 2005 source correct?

Status: Pending Really needed? - Anthony Aristar
Copulative (GOLD-2009) 2010-06-09 14:21:31

This seems to overlap with Copula. We will need to investigate whether we really need Copulative as a distinct concept from Copula.

Status: Pending Types of classifiers missing - Anthony Aristar
Classifier (GOLD-2010) 2010-06-09 14:48:18

Aikhenvald not only lists Noun, Nominal and Numeral Classifiers, but also Verbal Classifiers, Locative & Deictic Classifiers and Classifiers in PossessiveConstructions. These types should be added as children of the concept Classifier.

Status: Pending Definition of Essive - Christian Chiarcos
EssiveCase (GOLD-2009) 2010-06-15 21:21:04

Apparently there exist alternative definitions of "essive" in Finno-Ugric languages:

The Hungarian "formativus, or essivus-formalis '-ként' ... usually expresses a position, task and manner of the person or the thing." (Nose 2003)

"Haspelmath & Buchholz (1998:321) explained the function of the essive case as 'role phrases'. Role phrases represent the role of the function in which a participant appears. They regard the role phrases as adverbial."
(Nose 2003, p. 117)

In Estonian the essive case means such things as `(I played golf)
as a student', `(I worked) as a bartender', `(you look) tired',
`(he's very good) as a dancing partner', `(we parted) as friends'.
This doesn't sound like the definition you quoted, but is similar
(though not identical) to the meaning of the Hungarian form.
(Ivan A. Derzhanski, email 2010/06/15)

Apparently, the GOLD community relies on different definitions
of essive (referring to Lyons 1968: 299, 301; Crystal 1985: 112;
Blake 2001, see

The definition there defines the term as often used in descriptions of Daghestanian languages, where an essive is a kind of locative. It is thought that the Finnish/Estonian essive started life that way too, but in the contemporary languages _karhu-na_, given on that page as an example and glossed `at the bear', means rather `as a bear', `in one's being a bear'. ... The Hungarian form on the other hand was never a locative, as far as I know.
(Ivan A. Derzhanski, email 2010/06/15)

Masahiko Nose (2003), Adverbial Usage of the Hungarian Essive Case
personal communication with Ivan A. Derzhanski and Csaba Oravecz

Status: Pending Subcategorization of DiscourseUnit missing
DiscourseUnit (GOLD-2010) 2010-06-16 12:10:12

As the sister nodes of DiscourseUnit (FormUnit, GrammarUnit, SemanticUnit) all have child nodes with subtypes, it would make sense to have subtypes for DiscourseUnit as well, e.g. 'Narrative Unit' (e.g., Abstract, Coda, etc.), 'Conversational Unit' (e.g., turn, opening, closing, etc.).

Status: Pending Is this syntax? - Anthony Aristar
ProVerb (GOLD-2010) 2010-06-16 14:45:51

Is proverb a genuinely distinct part-of-speech or is it a function of syntax?

Status: Pending Needs subclassification - Anthony Aristar
FormUnit (GOLD-2009) 2010-07-11 01:49:36

This should be subclassified into SpokenUnit and WrittenUnit. The current children of FormUnit should then become the children of the correct subconcept. (Grapheme should become the child of WrittenUnit, the rest children of SpokenUnit.)

Status: Pending Attested? - Anthony Aristar
Processive (GOLD-2009) 2010-07-14 12:15:03

Is there a language in which Processive morphemes are found? If so, an example would be helpful. If not, this concept should be deleted.

This concept appears to have been deleted - Matt 10/27/2010

Status: Pending Portmanteau Morpheme in Hindi - Amitabhvikram Dwivedi
Morpheme (GOLD-2010) 2010-09-21 23:51:01

Portmanteau morphmeme is a morpheme that represents more than one grammatical functions i.e tense, gender, and number. In portmanteau morpheme this blending of different morphemes does not change the grammatical category of the word. Therefore, they come under inflectional morphology.

The examples of portmanteau morpheme in Hindi are:

1 The root /ladak/ realed to 'in the process of being young'
2 The stem /ladak/ for /ladakpan/ 'adolescence'
3 The stem /ladak/ for /ladaka:/ 'boy' showing singular male (two functions)
4 The stem /ladak/ for /ladaki/ 'girl' showing singular female (two functions)
5 The stem /ladak/ for /ladake/ 'boys' showing plural male (two functions)
6 The stem /ladak/ for /ladako/ 'boys' showing plural male in ergative case as in ladako-ne ka:m kiya:
Boys work did
'Boys did the work'
7 The stem /ladak/ for /ladakiyan/ 'girls' showing plural female

Status: Pending need to be decomposed - Helen Aristar-Dry
FirstPersonExclusive (GOLD-2010) 2010-09-23 13:06:49

First person exclusive is not an elemental category--it needs to be decomposed into 'first person' and 'exclusive'. Ditto for 'first person inclusive.'

This came up in the RELISH discussions

This concept links to the Surrey Morphology Group, which seems to support what you said above (

The inclusive/exclusive distinction (applied typically with regard to first person) is one of the important distinctions that have been identified for the category of person. Another one is the proximate/obviative distinction (applied typically with regard to third person). While the inclusive/exclusive distinction is typically defined as expressing the inclusion of the addressee with the first person, the proximate/obviative distintion regards the degree of remoteness of the non-participant.

This gives us four independent concepts: Exclusive, Inclusive, Proximate, Obviative
-Matt 9/23

Status: Pending Why no AdverbialPhrase? - Evelyn Richter
Phrase (GOLD-2010) 2010-11-28 00:28:45

I know that some scholars do not believe adverbs & adjectives as separate POS, but GOLD seems to see a distinction between the two since there is Adjectival and Adverbial in the Part of Speech Property section.

So why is there no AdverbialPhrase? And if there is no AdverbialPhrase concept on purpose, how would a mapping to something annotated as AdverbialPhrase work? Would it be mapped to Adverbial and Phrase or AdjectivePhrase or all three of these concepts?

AdverbialPhrase is annotated in the TIGER Corpus for instance.

Status: Pending Antipassive categorization
AntiPassiveVoice (GOLD-2010) 2010-12-16 12:44:42

There is a concept MorphosyntacticProperty with subconcept VoiceProperty with several antipassive properties. But which one of the GOLD antipassives is this? We don't know. So we go up one level? But that means that we label this with the concept "MorphosyntacticProperty", doesn't have much explanatory value.

Also, I cannot imagine how we would capture the distinction that the verb is syntactically transitive, even if we find the right antipassive voice.

Status: Pending Add the concept Valency?
DitransitiveVerb (GOLD-2010) 2010-12-16 12:47:34

We have transitive and related concepts - do we want to add the concept of Valency also with subtypes listed for Valency?

Status: Pending Morphopragmatic Property
MorphosyntacticProperty (GOLD-2010) 2010-12-16 12:52:49

In Basque:
When speaker and interlocutor are on a 2sg familiar basis, every verb takes a special 'allocutive' form. Where the base verb is intransitive, the allocutive form is the equivalent of a transitive verb form marking a 2sg familiar agent.

This seems to necessitate inclusion of a Morphopragmatic concept.

Status: Pending Transitivizer might need another concept
Transitivizer (GOLD-2010) 2010-12-16 12:56:29

A verb with applicative voice is the end result of a transitivization process, which promotes an oblique argument to a core argument. GOLD has the concept TRANSITIVIZER for the morpheme that does this, but I can find nothing for the end result.

Status: Pending PossessedCase in Potawatomi
PossessedCase (GOLD-2010) 2010-12-16 13:01:01

Found only "Possessed Case" in GOLD, but in Potawatomi, the possession is more like a prefix, not case (?)

Related concepts:
- InalienablyPossessed
- AlienablyPossessed
- Obviate

Status: Pending Mocovi Pronominals
Pronominal (GOLD-2010) 2010-12-16 13:02:09

Mocovi has Active/inactive pronominals - do we want to add these as subconcepts?:

While there is "Pronominal" in GOLD, but in Mocovi, speakers use active proclitics for agentive subjects and inactive proclitics for non-agentive subjects or objects.

Status: Pending Locative case in Archi
LocativeCase (GOLD-2010) 2010-12-16 13:04:59

Found only "Locative" in GOLD, but in Archi, speakers use Superlocative, Interlocative, and Inlocative Cases.

Status: Pending Add concept for Verb gender?
Verbal (GOLD-2010) 2010-12-16 13:07:46

Not sure if this has a term or if it is found anywhere, but Archi gives gender to its verbs, based on inanimate and animate, and possible feminine/masculine as well. Pending further research.

Status: Pending gold:Thing different from owl:Thing
Thing (GOLD-2010) 2011-01-17 08:40:57

I am unclear from the comments whether gold:Thing is meant to represent owl:Thing or a completely separate thing (as it currently does). With no distinction being made I'm wondering why the majority of the gold classes subclass gold:Thing while there are still some that subclass owl:Thing.

If there is an intentional distinction it should be made clear in the annotations. Otherwise either an owl:sameAs be added or better yet remove gold:Thing.

Status: Approved Properties listed under case property don't have line break
CaseProperty (GOLD-2010) 2011-02-17 14:48:26

Properties too long, need to have a line break

Status: Pending Add Quotative somewhere here here?
MoodProperty (GOLD-2010) 2010-12-16 13:12:26

Do we need to include quotatives such as a logophor or logophoric verb?

In Shosone, this is glossed as:
"says, said; it is said, they say; call, name".

This concept might be related to quotatives, it might be a logophor or logophoric verb.

Quotative would be covered by the issue 'Second Hand Evidentiality' which means that it is already in GOLD:

Status: Pending Add Spatial Case (as found in Potawatomi)
TerminativeCase (GOLD-2010) 2010-12-16 13:16:10

TerminativeCase seems to be the closest analogue to spatial case which is found in Potawatomi. Do we want to add this case?

Cases The structure underlying the spatial cases involves a projection of
Axial Part that is phonologically empty but syntactically present. This is
combined with Place, and in some situations Path. The case itself spells out
the Place or Path head ((50)-(51) and (52)-(53)), which merges with the Axial
(50) Hungarian case marked noun spelling out PlaceP
‘in the house’


Status: Pending Adding subconcepts to Adjectival?
Adjectival (GOLD-2010) 2010-12-16 13:20:04

Predicative and Attribute adjectives are not included here, there is no way so no way to distinguish attributive adjectives from adverbial or predicating adjectives.

Status: Pending Add Circumposition concept?
Circumfix (GOLD-2010) 2010-12-16 13:22:15

We have Circumfix as a GOLD concept, but no Circumposition.

Status: Pending Add Adverbial phrase?
VerbPhrase (GOLD-2010) 2010-12-16 13:24:40

While there is VerbPhrase in GOLD, there is no Adverbial phrase.

Status: Pending Adding finite/ infinite distinction?
Auxiliary (GOLD-2010) 2010-12-16 13:31:52

For the concept auxiliary, there is no finite vs. Infinite distinction in GOLD.

Status: Pending Mapping 'separable verb prefix' to GOLD
Prefix (GOLD-2010) 2010-12-16 13:35:55

How would you map something like 'separable verb prefix' to GOLD? Do we have the ability to capture the concept of 'separable' in the ontology?

Status: Pending Incompletive aspect?
CompletiveAspect (GOLD-2010) 2010-12-16 13:39:12

Should we add a concept for Incompletive aspect as well?

Status: Pending Add directionals?
VerbalParticle (GOLD-2010) 2010-12-16 13:42:22

There is no directional concept specifically in GOLD.

Status: Pending More Mood Properties Needed?
MoodProperty (GOLD-2010) 2010-12-17 12:06:13

Since they are mentioned in the definition, should Declarative, Imperative and Interrogative be here as Moods also? Also, Volitive and Commissive?

Status: Pending Active/Inactive Alignment - Justin Petro
MorphosyntacticProperty (GOLD-2010) 2010-12-20 13:11:09

While GOLD has various concepts under CaseProperty with which one can map Nominative/Accusative or Ergative/Absolute alignments there are no GOLD concepts with which one can map languages with an Active/Inactive alignment system.

The encoding of active and inactive roles can either be marked by case-markers or by person-number agreement on the verb, meaning there would either have to be active/inactive concepts under both CaseProperty and PersonProperty, or it would have its own distinct group under MorphosyntacticProperty

Haspelmath, Martin & Dryer, Matthew S. & Gil, David & Comrie, Bernard (eds.) (2008)

Status: Pending Inalienable/Alienable Possession - Justin Petro
PossessedCase (GOLD-2010) 2010-12-20 14:40:21

Certain languages have class of nouns that must be marked as being possessed, and there should be a matching GOLD concept to reflect this distinction.

An example of inalienably possessed nouns can be seen here:

Navajo (Young and Morgan 1987: 3)
-be' 'milk'

bi-be' 'her milk'

Young and Morgan (1987)

Status: Approved add PertinentiveCase - Christian Chiarcos
CaseProperty (GOLD-2010) 2011-02-15 20:30:01

Pertinentive Case is postulated for the description of Etruscan where it had two closely connected functions, namely, indirect object and beneficiary, when used in conjunction with a transitive verb such as *muluvanice* 'gave (as a gift)':

mini aranth ramuthasi vestiricinala muluvanice
I.ACC Aranth.NOM Ramutha.PERT Vestiricinai.PERT gave.PAST.ACTIVE
'Aranth gave me to/for Ramutha Vestiricinai.'

The original function of the pertinative may have been to express the locative of the genitive:

"in the (workshop) of Serturie" (ascribed on a ceramic)

Wallace, Rex E. (2008), Zikh Rasna. A Manual of the Etruscan Language and Inscriptions. Beech Stave Press. Ann Arbor, New York, p.97-99.

Status: Approved Blackfoot examples aren't from Blackfoot
RomanNumeralGender (GOLD-2010) 2011-03-08 10:44:40

The examples cited under "Roman Numeral Gender" as coming from Blackfoot (ISO 639-3: bla) are actually not Blackfoot, and are thus most likely not from Frantz (1991) via Mithun (1999).

Status: Approved Is this an actual "descriptive" concept? - Jeff Good
ArabicNumeralGender (GOLD-2010) 2011-03-24 18:43:28

Arabic Numerals are a labeling convention for genders, but I'm not sure they are a genuine linguistic concept. In some cases, they may be used for something like "semantically arbitrary gender". In others, they might simply be an abbreviation for some other kind of gender. The definition even says this is just a labeling convention. I'm not sure labeling conventions belong in GOLD in the first place. But, even if they do, such a "gender" should probably not be put in the same category as, say, FeminineGender.

I would suggest getting rid of "label" genders (including RomanNumeralGender) and, perhaps, including "ArbitraryGender", or something like that for cases where the number is used because there's otherwise no clear semantic label for the gender.

Status: Approved definition of synonym is circular - Alan Ruttenberg
synonym (GOLD-2010) 2011-05-12 09:25:47

The definition of synonym is: synonym. This doesn't help.

Status: Approved add AesthetiveCase - Christian Chiarcos
CaseProperty (GOLD-2010) 2011-07-28 16:20:43

"Aesthetive case" refers to a special form of subjects of transitive accidental event verbs that is formally identical to the dative/locative marker. Aesthetic subject marking is characteristic for West Tibetan dialects, but only rarely found in Lhasa Tibetan. (Zeisler 2004)

From a practical point of view this category is relevant because the only syntactically annotated corpus of Tibetan makes use of this category. (

Zeisler, Bettina (2004), Relative Tense and Aspectual Values in Tibetan Languages. A Comparative Study. Trends in Linguistics, Studies and Monographs 150, Mouton de Gruyter