GOLD Concept Change Field Value
AbilitativeModality Update Definition value AbilitativeModality indicates the capacity of an agent to perform some action, regardless of type or condition. This is also known as the abilitive. [Palmer 2001: 10]
AbilitativeModality Update Definition value AbilitativeModality indicates the capacity of an agent to perform some action, regardless of type or condition. This is also known as the abilitive.
AblativeCase Update Definition value AblativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from'. [Blake 1994: 38-39]
AblativeCase Update Definition value AblativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from'.
AblativeCase Update Definition value Ablative case denotes the source, agent, means, and occasionally also time or place of an an act or occurence. [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 3]
AbsolutiveAntipassiveVoice Update Definition value An Antipassive in which the patient (P) or logical object is suppressed or overtly absent. [Klaiman 1991: 232]
AbsolutiveAntipassiveVoice Update Definition value In the antipassive construction, the patient-like argument is either suppressed (left implicit) or realized as an oblique complement, rather than as a direct object as would be the case in the basic two-place predicate transitive construction. The absolutive antipassive voice is found in ergative languages. In this case, the direct object, which is in the absolutive case in the transitive construction, is no longer marked as absolutive. [Polinsky 2008]
AbsolutiveAntipassiveVoice Update Definition value In the antipassive construction, the patient-like argument is either suppressed (left implicit) or realized as an oblique complement, rather than as a direct object as would be the case in the basic two-place predicate transitive construction. The absolutive antipassive voice is found in ergative languages. In this case, the direct object, which is in the absolutive case in the transitive construction, is no longer marked as absolutive. Rather, the agent-like argument is marked as absolutive. [Polinsky 2008]
AbsolutiveAntipassiveVoice Update Definition value A term adopted by Dayley (1985:346) to describe one form of the antipassive in Tzutujil, a Mayan language. The absolutive antipassive is used when the patient is unknown or irrelevant, or when the speaker does not wish to mention the patient, or to describe a transitive activity typically performed by some agent. The absolutive antipassive requires a non-specific implied patient, and no specific patient is ever semantically recoverable from the speech context. This contrasts with what Dayley calls the (agent) focus antipassive. Only the absolutive antipassive has (as the name implies) absolutive function such that a transitive activity may be discussed without mention of the patient. The focus antipassive is a rearranging voice. [Dayley 1985: 346] This type of antipassive with an obligatorily unidentified object is also found in Mam, another Mayan language. [Cooreman 1994: 52-53]
AbsolutiveAntipassiveVoice Update Definition value A term adopted by Dayley (1985:346) to describe one form of the antipassive in Tzutujil, a Mayan language. The absolutive antipassive is used when the patient is unknown or irrelevant, or when the speaker does not wish to mention the patient, or to describe a transitive activity typically performed by some agent. The absolutive antipassive requires a non-specific implied patient, and no specific patient is ever semantically recoverable from the speech context. This contrasts with what Dayley calls the (agent) focus antipassive. Only the absolutive antipassive has (as the name implies) absolutive function such that a transitive activity may be discussed without mention of the patient. The focus antipassive is a rearranging voice. [Dayley 1985: 346-350] This type of antipassive with an obligatorily unidentified object is also found in Mam, another Mayan language. [Cooreman 1994: 52-53]
AbsolutiveAntipassiveVoice Update Definition value A term adopted by Dayley (1985:345) to describe one form of the antipassive in Tzutujil, a Mayan language. The absolutive antipassive is used when the patient is unknown or irrelevant, or when the speaker does not wish to mention the patient, or to describe a transitive activity typically performed by some agent. The absolutive antipassive requires a non-specific implied patient, and no specific patient is ever semantically recoverable from the speech context. This contrasts with what Dayley calls the (agent) focus antipassive. Only the absolutive antipassive has (as the name implies) absolutive function such that a transitive activity may be discussed without mention of the patient. The focus antipassive is a rearranging voice. [Dayley 1985: 345-350] This type of antipassive with an obligatorily unidentified object is also found in Mam, another Mayan language. [Cooreman 1994: 52-53]
AbsolutiveAntipassiveVoice Update Definition value A term used by some Mayanists to refer to an antipassive in which the patient or logical object is supressed or overtly absent. [Klaiman 1991: 232] Dayley states that the absolutive antipassive is used when the patient is unknown or irrelevant, or when the speaker does not wish to mention the patient, or to describe a transitive activity typically performed by some agent. The absolutive antipassive requires a non-specific implied patient, and no specific patient is ever semantically recoverable from the speech context. This contrasts with what Dayley calls the (agent) focus antipassive. Only the absolutive antipassive has (as the name implies) absolutive function such that a transitive activity may be discussed without mention of the patient. [Dayley 1985: 345-350] This type of antipassive with an obligatorily unidentified object is also found in Mam, another Mayan language. [Cooreman 1994: 52-53]
AbsolutiveAntipassiveVoice Update Definition value A term used by some Mayanists to refer to an antipassive in which the patient or logical object is supressed or overtly absent. [Klaiman 1991: 232] Dayley states that the absolutive antipassive is used when the patient is unknown or irrelevant, or when the speaker does not wish to mention the patient, or to describe a transitive activity typically performed by some agent. The absolutive antipassive requires a non-specific implied patient, and no specific patient is ever semantically recoverable from the speech context. Only the absolutive antipassive has (as the name implies) absolutive function such that a transitive activity may be discussed without mention of the patient. [Dayley 1985: 345-350] This type of antipassive with an obligatorily unidentified object is also found in Mam, another Mayan language. [Cooreman 1994: 52-53]
Abstract Update Definition value Any entity that does not occupy a position in space and time.
Abstract Update Definition value Although most cases can be attributed a semantic function (or a range of semantic functions), a distinction is often made between more abstract (grammatical) cases expressing core syntactic relations such as subject and object, and more concrete cases that express various specific semantic roles, especially spatial relationships [Haspelmath 2006: 3]
Abstract New Definition value Properties or qualities as distinguished from any particular embodiment of the properties/ qualities in a physical medium. Instances of Abstract can be said to exist in the same sense as mathematical objects such as sets and relations, but they cannot exist at a particular place and time without some physical encoding or embodiment. [SUMO 2010]
Abstract Delete Definition value Although most cases can be attributed a semantic function (or a range of semantic functions), a distinction is often made between more abstract (grammatical) cases expressing core syntactic relations such as subject and object, and more concrete cases that express various specific semantic roles, especially spatial relationships [Haspelmath 2006: 3]
AcousticProperty Update Definition value The class of properties concerning the acoustic nature of speech sounds. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 45]
AcousticProperty Update Definition value The class of properties concerning the acoustic nature of speech sounds.
AcousticProperty Update Definition value The class of properties concerning the acoustic nature of speech sounds. [Ladefoged 2000: 161]
ActionalForce Update Definition value ActionalForce indicates that the speaker or hearer is to undertake some action. Actional force subsumes Imperative, Commissive and Hortatory force.
ActiveVoice Update Definition value Associated with transitivity, when the action is performed by an agent (subject) on another participant (object), or with intransitivity [McIntosh 1984: 108]. Refers to the category of underived verb forms associated with the basic diathesis. [Shibatani 1995: 7]
ActiveVoice Update Definition value Associated with transitivity, when the action is performed by an agent (subject) on another participant (object), or with intransitivity [McIntosh 1984: 108]. It refers to the category of underived verb forms associated with the basic diathesis. [Shibatani 1995: 7]
ActiveVoice Update Definition value Associated with transitivity, when the action is performed by an agent (subject) on another participant (object), or with intransitivity [McIntosh 1984: 108]. It refers to the category of underived verb forms associated with the basic diathesis [Shibatani 1995: 7].
ActiveVoice Update Definition value Associated with transitivity, when the action is performed by an agent (subject) on another participant (object) [McIntosh 1984: 108]. It refers to the category of underived verb forms associated with the basic diathesis [Shibatani 1995: 7].
AdjectivePhrase New Definition value A phrase with an adjective as a head. [Crystal 2003: 11] Adjective phrases may contain complements following the head, and modifiers in either pre-head or post-head position, but for the most part, complements in adjective phrase structure are optional elements: they qualify as complements by virtue of being licensed by the head rather than being obligatory. [Huddleston and Pullum 2002: 22-23, 57, 542]
AdjectivePhrase Delete Definition value AdjectivePhrase is the class of phrases that have adjectives as heads.
AdjunctSubordinate Update Definition value A word or phrase which is used to extend the meaning of another word or phrase, but which is not one of the main structural elements of a sentence [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 5]. Adjunct clauses include subordinate clauses (i.e. those with overt subordinating conjunctions).
Adverbializer Update Definition value An adverbializer is a subordinating connective that links a subordinate clause to a main clause, and indicates that the subordinate clause has an adverbial or interpropositional relation to the main clause, indicating purpose, condition, time, and location. [Schachter 1985: 51-52]
Adverbializer New Definition value Marks clauses as having some adverbial function, such as the expression of time, purpose, result, etc. In some languages, many of the words that serve as adverbializers also serve as prepositional or postpositional noun adjuncts. In some languages, an adverbializer in a subordinate clause may be optionally paired with another conjunction occurring in the main clause. There are also cases where an adverbializer in a subordinate clause is obligatorily paired with a conjunction in the main clause. [Shopen 1985: 51-52]
Adverbializer Update Definition value An adverbializer is a subordinating connective that links a subordinate clause to a main clause, and indicates that the subordinate clause has an adverbial or interpropositional relation to the main clause, indicating purpose, condition, time, and location. [SIL International 2004]
Adverbializer Update Definition value Marks clauses as having some adverbial function, such as the expression of time, purpose, result, etc. In some languages, many of the words that serve as adverbializers also serve as prepositional or postpositional noun adjuncts. In some languages, an adverbializer in a subordinate clause may be optionally paired with another conjunction occurring in the main clause. There are also cases where an adverbializer in a subordinate clause is obligatorily paired with a conjunction in the main clause. [Schachter 1985: 51-52]
AirstreamProperty Update Definition value Refers to the direction of the airstream in speech sound production. In the canonical literature, there are three airstream mechanisms: pulmonic, velaric, and glottalic. Glottalic airstream mechanism is sometimes used to describe the method of production of ejectives and implosives. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 372-373]
AirstreamProperty Update Definition value Refers to the direction of the airstream in speech sound production. In the canonical literature, there are three airstream mechanisms: pulmonic, velaric, and glottalic. Glottalic airstream mechanism is sometimes used to describe the method of production of ejectives and implosives. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 372-373]
AirstreamProperty Update Definition value Refers to the direction of the airstream in speech sound production. In the canonical literature, there are three airstream mechanisms: pulmonic, velaric, and glottalic. Glottalic airstream mechanism is sometimes used to describe the method of production of ejectives and implosives. Ladefoged and Maddieson prefer to regard implosives and ejectives as characterized by a laryngeal parameter of movement rather than an airstream property. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 372-373]
AnnotationProperty New Definition value 'Linguistic annotation' covers any descriptive or analytic notations applied to raw language data. The basic data may be in the form of time functions - audio, video and/or physiological recordings - or it may be textual. The added notations may include transcriptions of all sorts (from phonetic features to discourse structures), part-of-speech and sense tagging, syntactic analysis, 'named entity' identification, co-reference annotation, and so on. [Bird and Liberman 2000: 1]
AnnotationProperty Update Concept parent
AnnotationProperty Update Concept parent
AntiPassiveVoice Update Definition value In the antipassive construction, the patient-like argument is either suppressed (left implicit) or realized as an oblique complement, rather than as a direct object as would be the case in the basic two-place predicate transitive construction. The antipassive voice is most commonly found in ergative languages. In this case, the direct object, which is in the absolutive case in the transitive construction, is no longer marked as absolutive. Rather, the agent-like argument is marked as absolutive. [Polinsky 2008] Derives an intransitive verb from a transitive stem whereby the original agent (only) is cross-referrenced by the absolutive markers on the verb and the original patient, if it appears, is in an oblique phrase. [England 1983: 110]
AntiPassiveVoice Update Definition value In the antipassive construction, the patient-like argument is either suppressed (left implicit) or realized as an oblique complement, rather than as a direct object as would be the case in the basic two-place predicate transitive construction. The antipassive voice is most commonly found in ergative languages. In this case, the direct object, which is in the absolutive case in the transitive construction, is no longer marked as absolutive, but is marked as oblique or is supressed entirely. The agent-like argument, marked as ergative in a typical transitive construction, is instead marked as absolutive, making it appear like the agent of an intransitive construction. [Polinsky 2008] Derives an intransitive verb from a transitive stem whereby the original agent (only) is cross-referrenced by the absolutive markers on the verb and the original patient, if it appears, is in an oblique phrase. [England 1983: 110]
AntiPassiveVoice Update Definition value In the antipassive construction, the patient-like argument is either suppressed (left implicit) or realized as an oblique complement, rather than as a direct object as would be the case in the basic two-place predicate transitive construction. The antipassive voice is most commonly found in ergative languages. In this case, the direct object, which is in the absolutive case in the transitive construction, is no longer marked as absolutive, but is marked as oblique or is supressed entirely. The agent-like argument, marked as ergative in a typical transitive construction, is instead marked as absolutive, making it appear like the agent of an intransitive construction. [Polinsky 2008]
ApplicativeVoice Update Definition value The applicative voice is a grammatical voice which promotes an oblique argument of a verb to the (core) patient argument, and indicates the oblique role within the meaning of the verb. Applicatives have a degree of overlap with causatives, and in some languages the two are realized identically. While differing from true applicatives, a similar construction known as dative shifting occurs in other languages, including English. [Payne 1997: 186-192]
ApplicativeVoice Update Definition value The applicative voice is a grammatical voice which promotes an oblique argument of a verb to the (core) patient argument, and indicates the oblique role within the meaning of the verb. Applicatives have a degree of overlap with causatives, and in some languages (e.g. Kinyarwanda [Kimenyi 1980: 164), Yagua, Malay, and Dyirbal [Croft 1990:242]) the two are realized identically. While differing from true applicatives, a similar construction known as dative shifting occurs in other languages, including English. [Payne 1997: 186-192]
ApplicativeVoice Update Definition value The applicative voice is a grammatical voice which promotes an oblique argument of a verb to the (core) patient argument, and indicates the oblique role within the meaning of the verb. Applicatives have a degree of overlap with causatives, and in some languages are realized identically; this isomorphism can be found in Kinyarwanda [Kimenyi 1980: 164), Yagua, Malay, and Dyirbal [Croft 1990:242]). While differing from true applicatives, a similar construction known as dative shifting occurs in other languages, including English. [Payne 1997: 186-192]
ApplicativeVoice Update Definition value The applicative voice is a grammatical voice which promotes an oblique argument of a verb to the (core) patient argument, and indicates the oblique role within the meaning of the verb. Applicatives have a degree of overlap with causatives, and in some languages are realized identically; this isomorphism can be found in Kinyarwanda [Kimenyi 1980: 164), Yagua, Malay, and Dyirbal [Croft 1990:242]). While differing from true applicatives, a similar construction known as dative shifting occurs in other languages, including English. Two subtle differences between applicative and dative-shift constructions are: (1) applicatives involve some marking on the verb whereas dative-shift constructions do not; and (2) dative-shift constructions typically allow only recipients and benefactives to become direct objects whereas applicative constructions normally advance instruments and perhaps other obliques. [Payne 1997: 186-192]
ApplicativeVoice Update Definition value The applicative voice is a grammatical voice which promotes an oblique argument of a verb to the (core) patient argument, and indicates the oblique role within the meaning of the verb. Applicatives have a degree of overlap with causatives, and in some languages are realized identically; this isomorphism can be found in Kinyarwanda [Kimenyi 1980: 164], Yagua, Malay, and Dyirbal [Croft 1990:242]. While differing from true applicatives, a similar construction known as dative shifting occurs in other languages, including English. Two subtle differences between applicative and dative-shift constructions are: (1) applicatives involve some marking on the verb whereas dative-shift constructions do not; and (2) dative-shift constructions typically allow only recipients and benefactives to become direct objects whereas applicative constructions normally advance instruments and perhaps other obliques. [Payne 1997: 186-192]
ApplicativeVoice Update Definition value The applicative voice is a grammatical voice which promotes an oblique argument of a verb to the (core) patient argument, and indicates the oblique role within the meaning of the verb. Applicatives have a degree of overlap with causatives, and in some languages are realized identically; this isomorphism can be found in Kinyarwanda [Kimenyi 1980: 164], Yagua, Malay, and Dyirbal [Croft 1990: 242]. While differing from true applicatives, a similar construction known as dative shifting occurs in other languages, including English. Two subtle differences between applicative and dative-shift constructions are: (1) applicatives involve some marking on the verb whereas dative-shift constructions do not; and (2) dative-shift constructions typically allow only recipients and benefactives to become direct objects whereas applicative constructions normally advance instruments and perhaps other obliques. [Payne 1997: 186-192]
ArabicNumeralGender New Definition value A labeling convention for gender categories. Arabic numerals are often used for languages for which there is a descriptive tradition involving use of the term 'noun class' instead of 'gender', in particular in languages of the Caucasus or Bantu languages; If the 'noun classes' are involved in agreement systems, they are gender systems. Arabic numerals may also be used in instances where another label is possible. For instance, in one language the gender to which nouns with human denotation are assigned might be called 'human', whereas in another language nouns with a similar denotation may be assigned to a gender with an arbitrary Arabic numerical label such as '1'. (Surrey Morphology Group, http://www.grammaticalfeatures.net/features/gender.html)
ArabicNumeralGender Update Definition value A labeling convention for gender categories. Arabic numerals are often used for languages for which there is a descriptive tradition involving use of the term 'noun class' instead of 'gender', in particular in languages of the Caucasus or Bantu languages; If the 'noun classes' are involved in agreement systems, they are gender systems. Arabic numerals may also be used in instances where another label is possible. For instance, in one language the gender to which nouns with human denotation are assigned might be called 'human', whereas in another language nouns with a similar denotation may be assigned to a gender with an arbitrary Arabic numerical label such as '1'. [Surrey Morphology Group 2010]
ArabicNumeralGender Update Definition value A labeling convention for gender categories. Arabic numerals are often used for languages for which there is a descriptive tradition involving use of the term 'noun class' instead of 'gender', in particular in languages of the Caucasus or Bantu languages; If the 'noun classes' are involved in agreement systems, they are gender systems. Arabic numerals may also be used in instances where another label is possible. For instance, in one language the gender to which nouns with human denotation are assigned might be called 'human', whereas in another language nouns with a similar denotation may be assigned to a gender with an arbitrary Arabic numerical label such as '1'. [Kibort and Corbett 2008]
ArabicNumeralGender Delete Definition value [Need comment]
ArabicNumeralGender Update Definition value A labeling convention for gender categories. Arabic numerals are often used for languages for which there is a descriptive tradition involving use of the term 'noun class' instead of 'gender', in particular in languages of the Caucasus or Bantu languages; If the 'noun classes' are involved in agreement systems, they are gender systems. Arabic numerals may also be used in instances where another label is possible. For instance, in one language the gender to which nouns with human denotation are assigned might be called 'human', whereas in another language nouns with a similar denotation may be assigned to a gender with an arbitrary Arabic numerical label such as '1'. [Kibort and Corbett 2008a]
AspectProperty Update Definition value The term 'aspect'; designates the perspective taken on the internal temporal organization of the event, and different values of the Aspect Feature distinguish different ways of viewing the internal temporal constituency of the same event [Comrie 1976: 3ff], after [Holt 1943: 6; Bybee 2003: 157]. The 'event' is understood here as a general term covering any situation type (a state, activity, accomplishment, achievement, etc.) as expressed by the verb phrase of the construction. Unlike Tense Feature, which expresses event-external time and is deictic, Aspect Feature is event-internal and non-deictic, as it is not concerned with relating the time of the event to any other time point.
AspectProperty Update Definition value The term 'aspect'; designates the perspective taken on the internal temporal organization of the event, and different values of the Aspect Feature distinguish different ways of viewing the internal temporal constituency of the same event [Comrie 1976: 3ff], after [Holt 1943: 6; Bybee 2003: 157]. The 'event' is understood here as a general term covering any situation type (a state, activity, accomplishment, achievement, etc.) as expressed by the verb phrase of the construction. Unlike Tense Feature, which expresses event-external time and is deictic, Aspect Feature is event-internal and non-deictic, as it is not concerned with relating the time of the event to any other time point. [Kibort 2008e]
Aspirated Update Definition value A sound is described as 'aspirated' when it has a greater rate of airflow than occurs in modal voice for a period of time before or after a stricture. It often accompanies a consonant which precedes a vowel, the beginning of which is unvoiced. [Ladefoged & Maddieson 1996: 48]
AssumptiveEvidentiality New Definition value One of the three types of judgment common in languages, that indicates inference from what is generally known. English has the contrast between Deductive and Assumptive, as shown in: “John must be in his office’, ‘John’ll be in his office’. Schlichter comments that the speaker believes the case to be true…in the case of the Assumptive ‘because of his experience with similar situations, regular patterns, or repeated circumstances common in human life’. It is used when the speaker has prior knowledge about the state of things or about habitual or general ‘behavior patterns’, but ‘only when no information about the state or event is being or has been received’. In that sense it is the negative member of the evidential system, used when no ready evidence is available. [Palmer 2001: 24-25; 30; 51]
AssumptiveEvidentiality Delete Definition value AssumptiveEvidentiality encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression through a possibly unsound inference procedure. That is, it is at least reasonable [Palmer 2001: 6-8].
AssumptiveEvidentiality Update Definition value One of the three types of judgment common in languages, that indicates inference from what is generally known. English has the contrast between Deductive and Assumptive, as shown in: 'John must be in his office', 'John'll be in his office'. Schlichter comments that the speaker believes the case to be true…in the case of the Assumptive ‘because of his experience with similar situations, regular patterns, or repeated circumstances common in human life’. It is used when the speaker has prior knowledge about the state of things or about habitual or general 'behavior patterns', but 'only when no information about the state or event is being or has been received'. In that sense it is the negative member of the evidential system, used when no ready evidence is available. [Palmer 2001: 24-25; 30; 51]
AttestedVariety New Definition value A linguistic form for which there is evidence of present or past use. [Crystal 2003: 41]
AttestedVariety Update Definition value A linguistic form for which there is evidence of present or past use. Attestation refers to something that is found in actual recorded usage, compared with the hypothetical predictions of grammar or the intuitive (but otherwise unsupported) observations of the linguist.[Crystal 2003: 41]
AttestedVariety Delete Definition value AttestedVariety is the class of human language varieties that have been observed by a linguist, and for which there is at least some record and/or data. Examples of attested varieties include all of the language varieties mentioned in the Ethnologue.
Back New Definition value A vowel sound produced with the tongue retracted towards the back of the oral cavity, e.g. [a:] as in English ‘calm’ or [u:] as in English ‘soon’. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 25]
Back Delete Definition value Characterizing sounds produced with the tongue near the back of the mouth.
BacknessProperty New Definition value A feature of vowel quality that correlates the difference between frequencies of formant two and formant one (overtones corresponding to a resonating frequency of the air in the vocal tract) [Ladefoged 2000: 215, 273]
BacknessProperty Delete Definition value The class of properties describing sounds based on the relative horizontal position of the tongue. Note, Ladefoged refers to this property as Back.
BinaryPredicator New Definition value Binary predicates define relationships between keywords. Each binary predicate is viewed as function: given the value of the first argument, it returns the set of values for the second argument that would make the predicate true. [Feldman and Hirsh 1996: 344] (not exact - Danniella)
BinaryPredicator Delete Definition value BinaryPredicator is the class of syntactic words that take two required arguments.
BinaryPredicator Update Definition value Binary predicates define relationships between keywords. Each binary predicate is viewed as function: given the value of the first argument, it returns the set of values for the second argument that would make the predicate true. [Feldman and Hirsh 1996: 344] BinaryPredicators are the class of syntactic words that require two arguments.
CaseProperty Update Definition value CaseProperty is the class of properties that concerns the grammatical encoding of a noun's relationship (syntactic or semantic) to some other element in the sentence, such as a verb, noun, pronoun, or adposition [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 35; Crystal 1980: 53-54; Anderson 1985: 179-180; Andrews 1985: 7172; Kuno 1973: 45; Blake 2001].
CategoryChanger New Definition value Another type of derivation which reflects a simple change of category without any functional change. [Spencer and Zwicky 59]
CategoryChanger Update Definition value Another type of derivation which reflects a simple change of category without any functional change. [Spencer and Zwicky 1998: 59]
CategoryChanger Delete Definition value Another type of derivation which reflects a simple change of category without any functional change. [Spencer and Zwicky 1998: 59]
CausativeVoice New Definition value A construction can be classified as a morphological causative when there is specific morphological encoding of causativity within the verb. Moreover, a causative is associated with an additional core argument, a causer or causal agent, added to the set of core arguments assigned by the corresponding noncausative verb. [Klaiman 1991: 51]
CausativeVoice Delete Definition value Expressing the causation of an action.
CentralEscape New Definition value A consonant articulated so that air passes out the center. [Ladefoged 2000: 155]
CentralEscape Delete Definition value Characterizing sounds produced with a release of air through the center of the mouth. (Note, [Ladefoged 1997] refers to this value as central.)
Character New Definition value A symbol used in writing, distinguished from others by its meaning, not its specific shape; similar to grapheme. It relates to the domain of orthographies and writing. Specific to the implementation of computers and other information systems. [Lyons, et al. 2001]
Character Delete Definition value A Character is the computational equivalent of a grapheme. For instance, a Unicode code point represents an instance of a character, such as LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A.
Citation Update Concept parent
Citation Update Definition value The action of citing or quoting any words or written passage from a publication that allows others to locate and identify the original source. Typical details include the title, author's name, the journal title (for articles), publication date and page numbers used in research. [Oxford English Dictionary 2010; Smith 2010]
Citation Update Concept parent
Citation Update Definition value The action of citing or quoting any words or written passage from a publication that allows others to locate and identify the original source. Typical details include the title, author's name, the journal title (for articles), publication date and page numbers used in research. [Oxford English Dictionary 2010]
Citation Update Concept parent
Citation Update Definition value The action of citing or quoting any words or written passage from a publication that allows others to locate and identify the original source. Typical details include the title, author's name, the journal title (for articles), publication date and page numbers used in research. [Oxford English Dictionary 2010] Note: This concept was included in order to facilitate linking to the bibliographic entries referenced in GOLD.
Citation Update Concept parent
Citation Update Concept parent
Class Update Concept parent
Classifier New Definition value A classifier is a word or affix that expresses the classification of a noun. [SIL International 2004]
Classifier New Definition value In grammar, a morpheme whose function is to indicate the formal or semantic class to which items belong are sometimes called classifiers, e.g. -ly is an adverb classifier, -ess is a 'femininity' classifier. The marking of lexical items as belonging to the same semantic class is an important feature in many languages (e.g. Chinese, Vietnamese, Hopi), and sometimes quite unexpected bases of classification are found, in terms of shape, size, colour, movability, animacy, status and so on. [Crystal 2003: 74]
Classifier Delete Definition value Classifier is a kind of operator used to indicate the syntactic class of some word.
Classifier Delete Definition value A classifier is a word or affix that expresses the classification of a noun. [SIL International 2004]
CloseFutureTense Update Definition value Also called ImmediateFutureTense, this grammatical class names an upcoming situation which is to take place shortly after the moment of utterance [Dahl 1985: 121; Comrie 1985: 94; Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 244-245].
ComparativeAdjective Update Definition value The form of an adjective which expresses that one thing possesses a certain quality or attribute to a greater extent than another thing or in relation to another reference point. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 60; Pei and Gaynor 1980:43]
ComparativeAdjective Update Definition value The form of an adjective which expresses that one thing possesses a certain quality or attribute to a greater extent than another thing or in relation to another reference point. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 60; Pei and Gaynor 1980: 43]
Complement Update Definition value A complement, also called a predicative, is a phrase that gives a description of the subject or object via the verb, while the verb itself expresses no adequate thought without being complemented by this addition. Most typically this is an adjective phrase. One way in which complements differ from objects in English is in their nonacceptance of clefting (e.g. *It was an athlete that he remained). [Asher 1994: 4881; Jespersen 2006: 89; Huddleston & Pullam 2002: 251]
Complement Update Definition value A complement, also called a predicative, is a phrase that gives a description of the subject or object via the verb, while the verb itself expresses no adequate thought without being complemented by this addition. Most typically this is an adjective phrase. [Asher 1994: 4881; Jespersen 2006: 89; Huddleston and Pullam 2002: 251]
ComplexSpecification Update Definition value A ComplexSpecification is a kind of FeatureSpecification whose value must be a FeatureStructure. This class gives a feature system its recursive properites [Maxwell, Simons and Hayashi 2000].
Compound New Definition value A term used widely in descriptive linguistic studies to refer to a linguistic unit which is composed of elements that function independently in other circumstances. [Crystal 2003: 92]
Compound Delete Definition value Compound is the class of complex units whose members are composed of at least two roots.
Compressed New Definition value When a bilabial plosive is generated, the lips get closer to themselves and also produce a certain degree of compression. [Cosi and Caldognetto 1996]
Compressed Delete Definition value When a bilabial plosive is generated, the lips get closer to themselves and also produce a certain degree of compression. [Cosi and Caldognetto 1996]
ConditionalPhysicalAbilitiveModality Update Definition value ConditionalPhysicalAbilitiveModality indicates ability of an agent to perform some action, requiring the presence of conditions external to the agent [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 177; Palmer 2001: 76].
Conjunction New Definition value A term used in the grammatical classification of words to refer to an item or a process whose primary function is to connect words or other constructions. The conventional subclassification of these 'connective' items distinguishes co-ordinating conjunctions (e.g. and, or, but) and subordinating conjunctions (e.g. because, when, unless) -- also referred to as 'co-ordinators' and 'subordinators' respectively. [Crystal 2008: 101]
Conjunction Delete Definition value A term used in the grammatical description of words to delineate a word whose primary function is to connect words or other constructions. They can be divided into two types: co-ordinating and subordinating conjunctions. [Crystal 1985: 64]
ContablativeCase Update Definition value ContablativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location 'from near' which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from near'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing ContablativeCase, namely -raš [Kibrik 1998: 470].
ContallativeCase Update Definition value ContallativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the vicinity of the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards the vicinity of'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing ContallativeCase, namely -rši [Kibrik 1998: 470].
ConterminativeCase Update Definition value ConterminativeCase expresses the notion of something moving into the vicinity of the referent of the noun it marks, but not through that region. It has the meaning 'moving into the vicinity of'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing ConterminativeCase, namely -rakana [Kibrik 1998: 470].
ContinuousAspect New Definition value A term used in the grammatical description of verb forms, referring to a contrast of a temporal or a durative kind, and thus handled sometimes under the heading of tense and sometimes under aspect. The usual contrast recognized is between ‘continuous’ or progressive, and non-continuous, simple, or ‘non-progressive’. Linguists prefer an aspectual analysis here, because of the complex interaction of durational, completive and temporal features of the meaning involved. [Crystal 2003: 105]
ContinuousAspect Delete Definition value A term used in the grammatical description of verb forms, referring to a contrast of a temporal or a durative kind, and thus handled sometimes under the heading of tense and sometimes under aspect. The usual contrast recognized is between ‘continuous’ or progressive, and non-continuous, simple, or ‘non-progressive’. Linguists prefer an aspectual analysis here, because of the complex interaction of durational, completive and temporal features of the meaning involved. [Crystal 2003: 105]
ContinuousAspect Update Definition value A value of Aspect Property assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that which indicates that the situation spoken about has internal temporal structure, but the situation cannot be regarded as habitual (i.e. it cannot be regarded as a characteristic feature of a whole period). Hence, continuousness can be defined negatively as imperfectivity that is not habituality [Comrie 1976: 26-32], and it can be regarded as a sub-type of imperfectivity. Typically, for an aspect value to be labelled as Continuous, the aspectual meaning has to minimally express continuousness, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings, or actionality distinctions. Continuous aspectual meaning can be further subdivided into two types: progressive meaning and nonprogressive meaning. These two aspectual meanings may or may not be grammaticalised as separate aspect values. [Kibort 2008]
ContinuousAspect Update Definition value A value of Aspect Property assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that which indicates that the situation spoken about has internal temporal structure, but the situation cannot be regarded as habitual (i.e. it cannot be regarded as a characteristic feature of a whole period). Hence, continuousness can be defined negatively as imperfectivity that is not habituality [Comrie 1976: 26-32], and it can be regarded as a sub-type of imperfectivity. Typically, for an aspect value to be labelled as Continuous, the aspectual meaning has to minimally express continuousness, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings, or actionality distinctions. Continuous aspectual meaning can be further subdivided into two types: progressive meaning and nonprogressive meaning. These two aspectual meanings may or may not be grammaticalised as separate aspect values. [Kibort 2008c]
ContinuousAspect Update Definition value A value of Aspect Property assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that which indicates that the situation spoken about has internal temporal structure, but the situation cannot be regarded as habitual (i.e. it cannot be regarded as a characteristic feature of a whole period). Hence, continuousness can be defined negatively as imperfectivity that is not habituality [Comrie 1976: 26-32], and it can be regarded as a sub-type of imperfectivity. Typically, for an aspect value to be labelled as Continuous, the aspectual meaning has to minimally express continuousness, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings, or actionality distinctions. Continuous aspectual meaning can be further subdivided into two types: progressive meaning and nonprogressive meaning. These two aspectual meanings may or may not be grammaticalised as separate aspect values. [Kibort 2008c: 8]
ContlativeCase Update Definition value ContlativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location in the vicinity of which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'in the vicinity of'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing ContlativeCase, namely -rak [Kibrik 1998: 470].
Converb Update Definition value A nonfinite verb form, i.e., lacking specifications for tense, mood, and agreement with their arguments, whose main function is to mark adverbial subordination. Converbal constructions are generally not arguments but modifiers, and they generally modify verbs, clauses or sentences, but not nouns or noun phrases. They are embedded or incorporated into the superordinate clause, and contrast with coordinate constructions. Converbal constructions can often be paraphrased by means of coordinate constructions in languages that allow coordination of clauses. [Haspelmath 1995: 3-8]
Converb Update Definition value A nonfinite verb form, i.e., lacking specifications for tense, mood, and agreement with their arguments, whose main function is to mark adverbial subordination. Converbal constructions are generally not arguments but modifiers, and they generally modify verbs, clauses or sentences, but not nouns or noun phrases. They are embedded or incorporated into the superordinate clause, and contrast with coordinate constructions. Converbal constructions can often be paraphrased by means of coordinate constructions in languages that allow coordination of clauses, such as in the gloss for the Korean example below. [Haspelmath 1995: 3-8]
Copula Update Definition value A verb expressing the relationship between the subject and predicate or complement of a sentence. The various forms of the verb 'to be' or its equivalents are typical examples of copula. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 55; Pei and Gaynor 1980: 48]
Copula Update Definition value Indicates a relationship of equivalency between the subject and predicate or complement of a clause. Verbal copulas have essentially the same morphosyntactic properties as verbs: English 'be', Spanish 'ser', and Russian 'byt’' are illustrations of this class. Nonverbal copular items include the the pro-copula - a demonstrative or personal pronoun which serves as the linker between subject and predicate nominal, and which is obligatory in nominal predication - and particle copulas, which have their origin in a variety of markers of discourse-oriented phenomena such as topicalization, backgrounding, or contrastive focus for subjects or predicates. Zero copula refers to a construction in which the relation between a subject and a nominal predicate is not marked by an overt item. Zero copula is mandatory in some languages, such as Sinhalese, whereas it is conditional or restricted in other languages, such as Russian. [Stassen 2008]
Copulative New Definition value A verb such as 'be', 'seem', 'become', 'look', etc. which relates the subject to the complement, e.g. in 'He is a teacher', 'The policeman seemed not at all satisfied', 'It got worse and and worse'. [Hartmann and Stork 1972:55]
Copulative Update Definition value A verb such as 'be', 'seem', 'become', 'look', etc. which relates the subject to the complement, e.g. in 'He is a teacher', 'The policeman seemed not at all satisfied', 'It got worse and and worse'. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 55]
Copulative Delete Definition value A type of Verb, e.g., 'seem' and 'appear'.
DatatypeProperty Delete Concept
DeclarativeForce New Definition value Declarative force marks an unqualified assertion. This form is generally unmarked for modality, and thus may also be seen as Realis, while modal forms are Irrealis. In English, the Declarative is marked by the absence of a modal verb, although it will be marked for the other verbal categories, tense and aspect. [Palmer 2001: 64]
DeclarativeForce New Definition value A term used in the grammatical classification of sentence types, and usually seen in contrast to imperative, interrogative, etc. It refers to verb forms or sentence/clause types typically used in the expression of statements, e.g. 'the man is walking'. The term 'indicative' is also sometimes used in this sense. [Crystal 2003: 124]
DeclarativeForce Delete Definition value DeclarativeForce indicates that the speaker is informing the hearer about the content of what is said.
Dental New Definition value A consonant which involves the teeth, normally the upper teeth, as the passive articulators in its articulation. The tip or apex of the tongue usually acts as the active articulator. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 61]
Dental Delete Definition value Characterizing sounds produced with the area behind the teeth but in front of the center of the alveolar ridge as the passive articulator [Ladefoged 1997: 597].
DeonticModality New Definition value Deontic modality is concerned with the necessity or possibility of acts performed by morally responsible agents and is thus associated with the social functions of permission and obligation. Deontic modality focuses on the notions of obligation and permission. It is found in directives that grant permission (‘you may go now’) or impose obligations (‘eat your vegetables!’), as well as in statements that report deontic conditions. Deontic modality fails to distinguish subcategories that are expressed inflectionally from lexical or periphrastic expressions of obligation or permission. Deontic modality as traditionally understood excludes certain semantically related notions such as ability and desire that have linguistic expression similar to that of permission and obligation. [Bybee and Fleischman 1995: 4-5]
DeonticModality Delete Definition value DeonticModality indicates that an agent has permission or is under an obligation to perform some action.
Diacritic New Definition value An auxiliary mark or symbol added above, below or after conventional graphic signs to give more information about the pronunciation of the sound represented in writing. Such diacritic marks include acute accent, apostrophe, caret, cedilla, diaeresis or umlaut, grave accent, macron, tilde and circumflex. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 65]
Diacritic Delete Definition value A Diacritic is a small mark added to a glyph (usually above or below) used to indicate stress, tone, or some kind of change in the quality of the segment represented by the glyph. Diacritics are used extensively in some writing systems, such as in French, Hebrew, or Arabic, and in transcription systems such as the International Phonetic Alphabet.
Dialect New Definition value A regional, temporal or social variety of a language, differing in pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary from the standard language,which is in itself a socially favoured dialect.[Hartmann and Stork 1972: 65]. Any language with a reasonably large number of speakers will develop dialects, especially if there are geographical barriers separating groups of people from each other, or if there are divisions of social class. One dialect may predominate as the official or standard form of the language, and this is the variety which may come to be written down. [Crystal 2003: 136]
Dialect Delete Definition value "A Dialect is a GeneticTaxon, such that: (a) there is at least one other dialect to which the particular instance of dialect is compared, (b) the two dialects are mutually intelligible, and (c) there is a language such that the two dialects are dialects of some language.
Dialect Update Definition value A regional, temporal or social variety of a language, differing in pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary from the standard language,which is in itself a socially favoured dialect. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 65]
Digraph New Definition value A term used in phonetics/phonology and graphics/graphology to refer to a graphic unit in which two symbols have combined to form a single element in a system. In the study of reading and spelling, digraph refers to any sequence of two letters pronounced as a single sound. [Crystal 2003: 139]
Digraph Delete Definition value A Digraph is a sequence of glyphs used in some writing systems to represent a single phoneme. For instance, 'ng' is used to represent the velar nasal in several Germanic languages.
DiscourseUnit Update Definition value The most general unit at the level of discourse.
DiscourseUnit Update Definition value The most general unit at the level of discourse. Discourse may be defined as a linguistic transaction between speaker and hearer, as an interpersonal activity whose form is determined by its social purpose [Hawthorn 1992: 189].
DiscourseUnit Update Definition value Discourse is the name given to stretches of language longer than one sentence, e.g., conversations, narratives, arguments, and speeches. A discourse unit is an identifiable structure within a discourse. The form of a discourse unit is partly determined by genre and partly by its social context. [Aristar-Dry 2010; based on Mills 1997]
DiscourseUnit Update Definition value Discourse is the name given to stretches of language longer than one sentence, e.g., conversations, narratives, arguments, and speeches. A discourse unit is an identifiable structure within a discourse. The form of a discourse unit is partly determined by genre and partly by its social context. [Aristar-Dry 2010 (p.c.); based on Mills 1997]
Disjunction Update Definition value Disjunction refers to a process whose primary function is to mark a relationship of contrast or comparison between structures, using such disjunctive items as 'or' and 'but'. [Crystal 1985: 97]
DistributiveNumeral Update Definition value A distributive numeral is a numeral which expresses a group of the number specified. [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 59]
DistributiveNumeral New Definition value A numeral referring to units or groups, each consisting of the indicated number of members considered. (E.g., ‘by twos’, ‘by the dozen’.) [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 59]
DistributiveNumeral New Definition value Most languages also have various series of numerals, whose denotations combine the concept of number with other concepts of a variety of different kinds. The meaning of sentences containing distributive numerals can be described in terms of a binary semantic relationship of distributivity that obtains between an expression containing the distributive numeral, the distributive share, and some other expression in the sentence, the distributive key. [Gill 2005: 222] Distributive numerals are special adnominal numerals that express distributive relations, as in German ‘Die Maenner trugen je drei Koffer’, ‘The men carried three suitcases each.’ English lacks distributive numerals, because in a sentence like ‘They carried three suitcases each, the numeral does not form a continuous constituent with the distributive word ‘each’, i.e. ‘three…each’ does not qualify as a numeral. [Michaelis, et al.]
DistributiveNumeral Delete Definition value A distributive numeral is a numeral which expresses a group of the number specified. [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 59]
DistributiveNumeral Delete Definition value A numeral referring to units or groups, each consisting of the indicated number of members considered. (E.g., ‘by twos’, ‘by the dozen’.) [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 59]
DistributiveNumeral Update Definition value Most languages also have various series of numerals, whose denotations combine the concept of number with other concepts of a variety of different kinds. The meaning of sentences containing distributive numerals can be described in terms of a binary semantic relationship of distributivity that obtains between an expression containing the distributive numeral, the distributive share, and some other expression in the sentence, the distributive key. [Gill 2005: 222] Distributive numerals are special adnominal numerals that express distributive relations, as in German ‘Die Männer trugen je drei Koffer’, ‘The men carried three suitcases each.’ English lacks distributive numerals, because in a sentence like ‘They carried three suitcases each, the numeral does not form a continuous constituent with the distributive word ‘each’, i.e. ‘three…each’ does not qualify as a numeral. [Michaelis, et al.]
DistributiveNumeral Update Definition value Most languages also have various series of numerals, whose denotations combine the concept of number with other concepts of a variety of different kinds. The meaning of sentences containing distributive numerals can be described in terms of a binary semantic relationship of distributivity that obtains between an expression containing the distributive numeral, the distributive share, and some other expression in the sentence, the distributive key. [Gill 2005: 222] Distributive numerals are special adnominal numerals that express distributive relations, as in German ‘Die Männer trugen je drei Koffer’, ‘The men carried three suitcases each.’ English lacks distributive numerals, because in a sentence like ‘They carried three suitcases each, the numeral does not form a continuous constituent with the distributive word ‘each’, i.e. ‘three…each’ does not qualify as a numeral. [Michaelis, et al. 2008]
DistributiveNumeral Update Definition value Most languages also have various series of numerals, whose denotations combine the concept of number with other concepts of a variety of different kinds. The meaning of sentences containing distributive numerals can be described in terms of a binary semantic relationship of distributivity that obtains between an expression containing the distributive numeral, the distributive share, and some other expression in the sentence, the distributive key. [Gill 2005: 222] Distributive numerals are special adnominal numerals that express distributive relations, as in German ‘Die Männer trugen je drei Koffer’, ‘The men carried three suitcases each.’ English lacks distributive numerals, because in a sentence like ‘They carried three suitcases each, the numeral does not form a continuous constituent with the distributive word ‘each’, i.e. ‘three…each’ does not qualify as a numeral. [Michaelis, Maurer, Haspelmath and Huber 2008]
DualNumber New Definition value The dual refers to two distinct real world entities. [Corbett 2000: 20]
DualNumber New Definition value The dual refers to two distinct real world entities. [Corbett 2000: 20]
DualNumber Delete Definition value The dual refers to two distinct real world entities. [Corbett 2000: 20]
DualNumber Delete Definition value The dual refers to two distinct real world entities. [Corbett 2000: 20]
DualNumber New Definition value The dual quantifies the denotation of the nominal element by specifying that there are exactly 'two' (as in Upper Sorbian, see Corbett 2000: 20 for examples and discussion. Additionally, but not necessarily, this value may be assigned on the basis of the formal properties of the nominal element (as in dualia tantum, e.g. mangautek 'scissors' in the Yukon dialect of Central Alaskan Yupik; [Jacobson 1984: 226]). The use of the dual varies across languages which have this value. In some languages, dual may be used to refer to any two entities, but in others it must refer to a natural pair such as eyes, and still in others it must refer to two items unless they are a natural pair [Corbett 2000]. [Kibort and Corbett 2008]
DualNumber Delete Definition value Dual refers to two members of a designated class [Crystal 1997: 26]. It typically occurs in a number system together with Singular and LargePlural, or with Singular, Trial and Multal.
DualNumber Update Definition value The dual quantifies the denotation of the nominal element by specifying that there are exactly 'two' (as in Upper Sorbian, see Corbett 2000: 20 for examples and discussion. Additionally, but not necessarily, this value may be assigned on the basis of the formal properties of the nominal element (as in dualia tantum, e.g. mangautek 'scissors' in the Yukon dialect of Central Alaskan Yupik; [Jacobson 1984: 226]). The use of the dual varies across languages which have this value. In some languages, dual may be used to refer to any two entities, but in others it must refer to a natural pair such as eyes, and still in others it must refer to two items unless they are a natural pair [Corbett 2000]. [Kibort and Corbett 2008b]
DualNumber Update Definition value The dual quantifies the denotation of the nominal element by specifying that there are exactly 'two' (as in Upper Sorbian, see [Corbett 2000: 20] for examples and discussion. Additionally, but not necessarily, this value may be assigned on the basis of the formal properties of the nominal element (as in dualia tantum, e.g. mangautek 'scissors' in the Yukon dialect of Central Alaskan Yupik; [Jacobson 1984: 226]). The use of the dual varies across languages which have this value. In some languages, dual may be used to refer to any two entities, but in others it must refer to a natural pair such as eyes, and still in others it must refer to two items unless they are a natural pair [Corbett 2000]. [Kibort and Corbett 2008b]
DubitiveMood Update Definition value DubitiveMood indicates a speaker's doubt or uncertainty about a proposition. [Palmer 2001: 24-25]
EndangermentTaxon New Definition value Endangerment taxon- There are a number of ways to categorize language endangerment situations. One useful taxonomy takes into account the relative rate of attrition together with its causes. This taxonomy recognizes four different categories of attrition: sudden, radical, gradual and top to bottom. [Brown and Ogilvie 2009: 321] (not exact - Danniella)
EndangermentTaxon Delete Definition value EndangermentTaxon is a class of taxons based on the robustness of its members. Endangerment is based on a number of criteria including the number of speakers, the average age of the native-speaker population, etc.
EndangermentTaxon Update Definition value There are a number of ways to categorize language endangerment situations. One useful taxonomy takes into account the relative rate of attrition together with its causes. This taxonomy recognizes four different categories of attrition: sudden, radical, gradual and top to bottom. [Brown and Ogilvie 2009: 321]
EpistemicModality Update Definition value EpistemicModality indicates that a state of affairs is known to be possible or certain (necessary). [Palmer 2001: 7]
EpistemicModality Update Definition value EpistemicModality indicates that a state of affairs is known to be possible or certain (necessary). [Palmer 2001: 7-8]
EpistemicModality Update Concept parent MoodProperty
EpistemicPossibilityModality Delete Concept
EpistemicPossibilityModality New Concept
EpistemicPossibilityModality New Definition value EpistemicPossibilityModality indicates that the designated state of affairs is not known not to be true.
EvaluativeProperty New Definition value A term used in semantics for a type of modality where propositions express the speaker’s attitude (e.g. surprise, regret) towards what is being said. [Crystal 2003: 168]
EvaluativeProperty Delete Definition value EvaluativeProperty is the class of properties that concern the grammatical encoding of judged value. These properties are associated with nominals that generally indicate that the referent is viewed favorably or unfavorably by the speaker.
EvidentialityProperty New Definition value A term used in semantics for a type of epistemic modality where propositions are asserted that are open to challenge by the hearer, and thus require justification. Evidential constructions express a speaker’s strength of commitment to a proposition in terms of the available evidence (rather than in terms of possibility or necessity). They add such nuances of meaning to a given sentence as ‘I saw it happen’. [Crystal 2003: 169] Evidentiality denotes the basis that the speaker has for claiming that the event has occurred (or is going to take place). Appear to show a greater number of distinctions in the realis mood (especially in the past tense) than the irrealis mood. [Bhat 1999: 63-64, 70]
EvidentialityProperty Delete Definition value EvidentialFeature is the class of properties that concern the grammatical encoding of the speaker's belief in what they say. It is closely related to mood, some of whose values indicate the strength of the agent's belief.
EvidentialityProperty Update Definition value Evidentiality denotes the basis that the speaker has for claiming that the event has occurred (or is going to take place). Appear to show a greater number of distinctions in the realis mood (especially in the past tense) than the irrealis mood. [Bhat 1999: 63-64, 70]
ExtinctVariety New Definition value A language no longer used as a medium of oral communication in a speech community, e.g. Latin, Gothic, as opposed to living languages such as English, Japanese. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 58]
ExtinctVariety Delete Definition value ExtinctVariety is the class of human language varieties that no longer have native speakers, e.g., Frankish or Mozarabic.
FeatureAgreementSystem New Definition value The features of gender, number, and person are typically involved in agreement. A controller of agreement bears the feature value it requires of its target (this is commonly referred to as ‘feature matching’). [Kibort 2008]
FeatureAgreementSystem Update Definition value A type of FeatureDistributionSystem; in a given language, it is the system according to which feature values (of a particular feature) are determined for elements through agreement (i.e. where the form of the element is determined by the presence of another element). [Kibort 2008d]
FeatureAgreementSystem Delete Definition value The features of gender, number, and person are typically involved in agreement. A controller of agreement bears the feature value it requires of its target (this is commonly referred to as ‘feature matching’). [Kibort 2008]
FeatureAssignmentSystem New Definition value Finally, a terminological note is due on the term ‘assignment’. This term was first used with respect to feature values by Corbett (1991) in his discussion of mechanisms for allotting nouns to different genders. Native speakers have the ability to ‘work out’ the gender of a noun, and models of this ability have been called ‘gender assignment systems’. So far, the concept of ‘assignment of a feature value’ has not been used outside gender. For some features, there may not be as much to say as for gender. However, using the concept of ‘assignment’ with respect to the values of all features is useful to be able to compare the features. Therefore, for this typology I have adopted the following definition: an assignment system is a set of rules that realise the value of a feature on an element. Note, however, that under this definition, a gender value is ‘assigned’ both to nouns, and to targets of agreement in gender with the noun. [Kibort 2008]
FeatureAssignmentSystem Delete Definition value In a given language, the system according to which feature values (of a particular feature) are assigned inherently to elements, based on the elements' inherent formal or semantic properties.
FeatureAssignmentSystem Update Definition value (The term 'assignment') was first used with respect to feature values by Corbett (1991) in his discussion of mechanisms for allotting nouns to different genders. Native speakers have the ability to ‘work out’ the gender of a noun, and models of this ability have been called ‘gender assignment systems’. So far, the concept of ‘assignment of a feature value’ has not been used outside gender. For some features, there may not be as much to say as for gender. However, using the concept of ‘assignment’ with respect to the values of all features is useful to be able to compare the features. Therefore, for this typology I have adopted the following definition: an assignment system is a set of rules that realise the value of a feature on an element. Note, however, that under this definition, a gender value is ‘assigned’ both to nouns, and to targets of agreement in gender with the noun. [Kibort 2008]
FeatureAssignmentSystem Update Definition value (The term 'assignment') was first used with respect to feature values by Corbett (1991) in his discussion of mechanisms for allotting nouns to different genders. Native speakers have the ability to ‘work out’ the gender of a noun, and models of this ability have been called ‘gender assignment systems’. So far, the concept of ‘assignment of a feature value’ has not been used outside gender. For some features, there may not be as much to say as for gender. However, using the concept of ‘assignment’ with respect to the values of all features is useful to be able to compare the features. Therefore, for this typology I have adopted the following definition: an assignment system is a set of rules that realise the value of a feature on an element. Note, however, that under this definition, a gender value is ‘assigned’ both to nouns, and to targets of agreement in gender with the noun. [Kibort 2008d: 8]
FeatureConstraint New Definition value A term used in linguistics, and especially in generative grammar, to refer to a condition which restricts the application of a rule, to ensure that the sentences generated are well formed. For example, in generative phonology, a distinction can be made between ‘simulatenous’ and ‘sequential’ constraints: the former states the restrictions on the simulataneous occurrence of features, e.g. a segment cannot be at once [+high] and [+low]; the latter states the restrictions on sequences of features, e.g. whether a language permits consonant clusters. In generative syntax there are also several constraints which have to be imposed in order to prevent the derivation of ill formed phrase-markers, e.g. constraints on the ordering of rules. The notion of constraints takes on a different direction in optimality theory, where it is the principle explanatory device. Here, constraints are ways of characterizing language universals. Each language has its own ranking of constraints (e.g. which determine morpheme position or syllable structure), and differences between these rankings result in the variations observed between languages. [Crystal 2003: 101]
FeatureConstraint Delete Definition value A FeatureConstraint is a LinguisticDataStructure which groups a part of speech value with a set of features. Within a FeatureSystem of some language, it indicates which Features may be associated with a particular linguistic unit based on the unit's part of speech.
FeatureDistributionSystem New Definition value A method of linguistic analysis which shows the distribution of phonological, grammatical or lexical elements within larger sequences, e.g. phonemes in words or words in sentences. The frequency of occurrence of individual items in restricted environments is considered here as important as their functional inter-relationships. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 71] (This is a definition for distributional analysis, the closest I could find - Danniella)
FeatureDistributionSystem Delete Definition value A method of linguistic analysis which shows the distribution of phonological, grammatical or lexical elements within larger sequences, e.g. phonemes in words or words in sentences. The frequency of occurrence of individual items in restricted environments is considered here as important as their functional inter-relationships. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 71] (This is a definition for distributional analysis, the closest I could find - Danniella)
FeatureDistributionSystem Update Definition value In a given language, the system according to which feature values (of a particular feature) are determined contextually for elements, through agreement or government. FeatureDistributionSystem can have one or two main components: FeatureAgreementSystem, and FeatureGovernmentSystem.[Kibort 2008d]
FeatureDistributionSystem Update Definition value In a given language, the system according to which feature values (of a particular feature) are determined contextually for elements, through agreement or government. FeatureDistributionSystem can have one or two main components: FeatureAgreementSystem, and FeatureGovernmentSystem. [Kibort 2008d]
FeatureGovernmentSystem New Definition value The feature of case is typically involved in government. A governor does not bear the feature value it requires of its governee. Government is also asymmetric with regard to the possession of the feature specification by the elements. [Kibort 2008]
FeatureGovernmentSystem Delete Definition value A type of FeatureDistributionSystem; in a given language, it is the system according to which feature values (of a particular feature) are determined for elements through government (i.e. where the form of the element is determined by the presence of another element).
FeatureGovernmentSystem Update Definition value The feature of case is typically involved in government. A governor does not bear the feature value it requires of its governee. Government is also asymmetric with regard to the possession of the feature specification by the elements. [Kibort 2008d: 1, 6]
FeatureSpecification Update Definition value A FeatureSpecification is a data structure that groups together a linguistic feature with a value [Maxwell, Simons and Hayashi 2000].
FeatureStructure Update Definition value A FeatureStructure is a set of one or more FeatureSpecifications. A FeatureStructure is a kind of information structure, a container or data structure, used to group together qualities or features of some object. In a grammatical feature system, a FeatureStructure holds the grammatical information associated with some linguistic unit. In a typed feature system, a FeatureStructure has an associated type, usually a PartOfSpeech. [Shieber 1986; Maxwell, Simons and Hayashi 2000].
FeatureSystem Update Definition value Feature system is defined in three ways: (1) a set of FeatureValues, (2) the particular FeatureAssignmentSystem according to which the values are assigned inherently to elements in the given language, and (3) the particular FeatureDistributionSystem according to which the values are determined contextually for elements in the given language and the class of grammatical opposition sets relevant for a specific domain (tense, aspect, number, etc.) in a given language.
FeatureSystem New Definition value An utterance is divided into parts, which are assigned to word classes and then subclassified in terms of their “accidents” or properties. The properties, also referred to as features or categories, express what is shared by different linguistic elements, as opposed to what is idiosyncratic. [Kibort 2008]
FeatureSystem Delete Definition value Feature system is defined in three ways: (1) a set of FeatureValues, (2) the particular FeatureAssignmentSystem according to which the values are assigned inherently to elements in the given language, and (3) the particular FeatureDistributionSystem according to which the values are determined contextually for elements in the given language and the class of grammatical opposition sets relevant for a specific domain (tense, aspect, number, etc.) in a given language.
FeatureSystem Update Definition value An utterance is divided into parts, which are assigned to word classes and then subclassified in terms of their "accidence" or properties. The properties, also referred to as features or categories, express what is shared by different linguistic elements, as opposed to what is idiosyncratic. [Kibort 2008d: 1]
FeatureSystem Update Definition value An utterance is divided into parts, which are assigned to word classes and then subclassified in terms of their "accidence" or properties. [Blevins 2006: 390] The properties, also referred to as features or categories, express what is shared by different linguistic elements, as opposed to what is idiosyncratic. [Kibort 2008d: 1]
FeatureSystem Update Definition value An utterance is divided into parts, which are assigned to word classes and then subclassified in terms of their "accidents" or properties. [Blevins 2006: 390] The properties, also referred to as features or categories, express what is shared by different linguistic elements, as opposed to what is idiosyncratic. [Kibort 2008d: 1]
FeminineGender Update Definition value A gender property established on the basis of agreement, to which nouns may be assigned if 1) they inherently denote females. Additionally, but not necessarily, nouns may be assigned this value if: 2) their formal properties (morphological or phonological) lead them to be assigned to the same agreement pattern as other nouns within the language that have female denotation. 3) they are arbitrarily assigned to the same agreement pattern as other nouns in the language that have female denotation. [Corbett 1991]
FocusAntipassiveVoice Update Definition value Blocks the patient or logical object (basic absolutive) nominal from being assigned Focus salience. Topic salience is available for assignment to various arguments, including the patient, but Focus salience is always assigned to agent, and is therefore inaccessible to patient or any other nominal. [Klaiman 1991: 236]
FocusAntipassiveVoice Update Definition value Blocks the patient or logical object (basic absolutive) nominal from being assigned Focus salience. Topic salience is available for assignment to various arguments, including the patient, but Focus salience is always assigned to agent, and is therefore inaccessible to the patient or any other nominal. [Klaiman 1991: 236] Dayley describes the focus antipassive as a rearranging voice whose primary function is to indicate that the agent of a transitive sentence is highlighted or in focus. The focus antipassive is used when the agent is in contrastive focus or highly emphatic, when the agent is questioned, and when the agent is relativized. [Dayley 1985: 348]
Foot Update Definition value Used to describe the unit of rhythm in languages displaying isochrony, i.e. where the stressed syllables fall at approximately regular intervals throughout an utterance. It is an extension of the term used in traditional studies of metrical verse structure, where the many regular patterns of stressed/unstressed syllables were given a detailed classification. In a more general phonological sense, the notion is applied to any utterance in a stress-timed language, not just verse. [Crystal 1985: 123-124]
FormalAssignmentSystem New Definition value One more distinction can be made within both types of inherently assigned feature values: that between formal and semantic assignment. This distinction was proposed by Corbett (1991) to account for the criteria according to which nouns can be allotted to genders. Corbett demonstrates that gender assignment systems in languages can be semantic or semantic-and-formal – that is, the set of rules that determine the assignment of inherent gender values to nouns refer to the meaning of words, or a combination of the meaning of words and the form of words. [Kibort 2008]
FormalAssignmentSystem Update Definition value One more distinction can be made within both types of inherently assigned feature values: that between formal and semantic assignment. This distinction was proposed by Corbett (1991) to account for the criteria according to which nouns can be allotted to genders. Corbett demonstrates that gender assignment systems in languages can be semantic or semantic-and-formal – that is, the set of rules that determine the assignment of inherent gender values to nouns refer to the meaning of words, or a combination of the meaning of words and the form of words. [Kibort 2008d: 12]
FormUnit New Definition value Denotes the sensorily perceptible aspect of the linguistic sign. [Bussmann 1996: 169]
FormUnit Delete Definition value A FormUnit is any unit of linguistic form; the abstract form component of a linguistic sign. Subclasses include various phonology units such as Phoneme, Mora, PhonologicalWord, etc.
FreeUnit New Definition value A morpheme which can be used on its own as a word with a distinct meaning, as opposed to a bound morpheme. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 88]
FreeUnit Delete Definition value FreeUnit is the class of morphological units that can exist on their own without being a constituent of another morphological unit. Note that free units can also be syntactic units, namely syntactic words, at the level of the syntactic construction.
Fricative New Definition value Fricative sounds are those in which a turbulent airstream is produced within the vocal tract. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 137]
Front New Definition value A sound made with the front part of the tongue, in the area of the hard palate. [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 78]
Front New Definition value The highest point of the tongue is in the front of the mouth. [Ladefoged 2000: 12]
Front Delete Definition value Characterizing sounds produced with the tongue near the front of the mouth.
FunctionalUnit New Definition value A term used in a range of linguistic contexts to refer to a phonological or grammatical feature lacking a specific type of formal constraint. For example, a free form or free morpheme is a minimal grammatical unit which can be used as a word without the need for for further morphological modification (opposed to bound). [Crystal 2003: 188] (Not exact definition, spoke to Evelyn about interpreting 'functional unit' as 'free morpheme' -Danniella)
FunctionalUnit New Definition value A bound morpheme is a grammatical unit that never occurs by itself, but is always attached to some other morpheme. Example: The plural morpheme '-s' in dogs. [SIL International 2004]
FunctionalUnit New Definition value A bound morpheme (or bound form) is one which cannot occur on its own as a separate word, e.g. various affixes de-, -tion, -ize. [Crystal 2003: 56]
FunctionalUnit Delete Definition value FunctionalUnit is the class of units that includes inflectional and derivational units. Functional units attach to roots and stems and can be used to form morphological paradigms in a grammatical description.
FunctionalUnit Delete Definition value A term used in a range of linguistic contexts to refer to a phonological or grammatical feature lacking a specific type of formal constraint. For example, a free form or free morpheme is a minimal grammatical unit which can be used as a word without the need for for further morphological modification (opposed to bound). [Crystal 2003: 188] (Not exact definition, spoke to Evelyn about interpreting 'functional unit' as 'free morpheme' -Danniella)
FunctionalUnit Delete Definition value A bound morpheme is a grammatical unit that never occurs by itself, but is always attached to some other morpheme. Example: The plural morpheme '-s' in dogs. [SIL International 2004]
FutureTense Update Definition value A value of Tense Property assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as posterior to the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'future', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'posterior'. The posterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modelling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. 'Perfect' tense meanings are created when the reference point is separated and moved away from the event time, thus altering the viewing of the temporal location of the event even though the event's actual location with respect to the deictic centre remains the same. Posterior temporal relationships obtaining in a 'perfect' context occur when the reference point is moved away from the event time. There are various logical possibilities for locating the reference point with respect to the other two points, though none of them seem to be typically grammaticalised as separate tenses. Typically, for a tense value to be labelled as Future Tense, the tense meaning has to minimally express the posterior temporal relationship, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings. [Kibort 2008]
GlottalMovementProperty Update Definition value A phonation type with the features 'raising' and lowering'. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 372]
GlottalMovementProperty Update Definition value A phonation type containing the features 'raising' and lowering'. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 372]
GlottalMovementProperty Update Definition value A phonation type containing the features 'raising' and 'lowering'. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 372]
GlottalStrictureProperty Update Definition value A phonation type with the features 'voiceless', 'breathy voice, 'modal voice', 'creaky voice', 'closed'. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 372]
GlottalStrictureProperty New Definition value The three phonation types are part of the five possible values of Glottal Stricture that are used by languages. Sounds can have the vocal cords tightly together, as in a glottal stop, or they can be far apart as in voiceless sounds, or they can have one of the three phonation types: breathy voice, modal voice and creaky voice. Although some phoneticians have shown how terms similar to these may be combinable from the phonetic point of view, the named terms form a set of phonologically mutually exclusive possibilities. These factors point to there being an ordered set of five possibilities: [voiceless], [breathy], [modal voice], [creaky] and [closed]. It is certainly appropriate to consider these glottal states as resulting from two physiological attributes of the vocal cords, their stiffness and their aperture. However from a linguistic point of view, the named values of the feature Glottal Stricture operate as a linearly ordered set of five mutually exclusive possibilities. [Ladefoged 1997: 607-608]
GlottalStrictureProperty Delete Definition value A phonation type with the features 'voiceless', 'breathy voice, 'modal voice', 'creaky voice', 'closed'. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 372]
GlottalTimingProperty Update Definition value A phonation type containing the features 'aspirated' and 'unaspirated'. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 372]
GlottalTimingProperty New Definition value A phonation type containing the features 'aspirated' and 'unaspirated. Aspiration involves matters of relativing timing between laryngeal and oral articulations, and the wider opening can be viewed as an aspect of the control of this timing. There are two ways of interpreting this greather width; it can be seen as the essential aspect of the production of voiceless aspiration, that is, aspiration is an extra-wide opening of the vocal folds (Kim 1965), or it can be seen as a by-product of the mechanism by which a delay between the offset of the oral and glottal gestures is achieved, that is, aspiration is esentially a matter of the timing between speech movements controlling laryngeal setting and oral articulation (Goldstein and Browman 1986). [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 49-66; 372]
GlottalTimingProperty Delete Definition value A phonation type containing the features 'aspirated' and 'unaspirated'. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 372]
GlottalTimingProperty Update Definition value A phonation type containing the features 'aspirated' and 'unaspirated. Aspiration involves matters of relativing timing between laryngeal and oral articulations, and the wider opening can be viewed as an aspect of the control of this timing. There are two ways of interpreting this greather width; it can be seen as the essential aspect of the production of voiceless aspiration, that is, aspiration is an extra-wide opening of the vocal folds [Kim 1965], or it can be seen as a by-product of the mechanism by which a delay between the offset of the oral and glottal gestures is achieved, that is, aspiration is esentially a matter of the timing between speech movements controlling laryngeal setting and oral articulation [Goldstein and Browman 1986]. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 49-66; 372]
Glyph New Definition value A shape that is the visual representation of a character. It is a graphic object stored within a font. Glyphs are objects that are recognizably related to particular characters and which are dependent on particular design. Glyphs may or may not correspond to characters in a one-to-one manner. For example, a single character may correspond to multiple glyphs that have complementary distributions based upon context (e.g. final and non-final sigma in Greek), or several characters may correspond to a single glyph known as a ligature. [Lyons, et al., 2001]
Glyph Update Definition value A shape that is the visual representation of a character. It is a graphic object stored within a font. Glyphs are objects that are recognizably related to particular characters and which are dependent on particular design. Glyphs may or may not correspond to characters in a one-to-one manner. For example, a single character may correspond to multiple glyphs that have complementary distributions based upon context (e.g. final and non-final sigma in Greek), or several characters may correspond to a single glyph known as a ligature. [Lyons, et al. 2001]
Grapheme New Definition value (n.) The minimal contrastive unit in the writing system of a language; usually enclosed in angle brackets. The grapheme <a>, for example, is realized as several allographs A, a, a, etc., which may be seen as units in complementary distribution(e.g. upper case restricted to sentence-initial position, proper names, etc.), or in free variation (as in some styles of handwriting), just as in phonemic analysis. ‘Grapheme Analysis’ is the main business of graphemics (or graphology). [crystal 2008: 220]
Grapheme Update Definition value Crystal defines a Grapheme as 'the minimal contrastive unit in the writing system of a language; usually enclosed in angle brackets. The grapheme <a>, for example, is realized as several allographs A, a, a, etc., which may be seen as units in complementary distribution(e.g. upper case restricted to sentence-initial position, proper names, etc.), or in free variation (as in some styles of handwriting), just as in phonemic analysis. 'Grapheme Analysis' is the main business of graphemics (or graphology). [Crystal 2008: 220]
Grapheme Update Definition value Crystal defines a grapheme as the minimal contrastive unit in the writing system of a language; usually enclosed in angle brackets. The grapheme <a>, for example, is realized as several allographs A, a, a, etc., which may be seen as units in complementary distribution(e.g. upper case restricted to sentence-initial position, proper names, etc.), or in free variation (as in some styles of handwriting), just as in phonemic analysis. 'Grapheme Analysis' is the main business of graphemics (or graphology). [Crystal 2008: 220]
Grapheme Update Definition value A Grapheme is the smallest meaningful contrastive unit in a writing system. A grapheme is an abstraction over a set of like glyphs, the actual images on the page. That is, a particular grapheme is realized by particular glyphs. More than one glyph can realize the same grapheme. For instance, the letter A and its cursive equivalent are each realizations of the grapheme Latin Capital Letter A.
Grapheme Update Definition value Crystal defines a grapheme as the minimal contrastive unit in the writing system of a language; usually enclosed in angle brackets. The grapheme <a>, for example, is realized as several allographs A, a, a, etc., which may be seen as units in complementary distribution (e.g. upper case restricted to sentence-initial position, proper names, etc.), or in free variation (as in some styles of handwriting), just as in phonemic analysis. 'Grapheme Analysis' is the main business of graphemics (or graphology). [Crystal 2008: 220]
GreaterPaucalNumber Update Definition value GreaterPaucal is a number property that quantifies the denotation of the nominal element so that it specifies that there are a small number of distinct entities, greater than paucalNumber but less than pluralNumber (so semantically similar to 'several' in English). An example of greaterPaucalNumber is found in Sursurunga (sgz): til main gam han suri tártár 2.GRPAU from here 2.PL go PURPOSE chop on á kakau káián Himaul viles, honin it TOPIC cacao its Himaul village today dilhat má lu tangkabin sirai má ... 3.GRPAU EMPHATIC HABITUAL begin selling now "You all from here (i.e. from this village) went to slash (for burning then planting) Himaul village's cacao, which already they (i.e. people from Himaul) have begun to sell ..." Hutchisson uses the term 'quadral' for Greater Paucal; see the terminology notes for a comment on this [Corbett 2000: 28].
GreaterPaucalNumber Update Definition value GreaterPaucal is a number property that quantifies the denotation of the nominal element so that it specifies that there are a small number of distinct entities, greater than paucalNumber but less than pluralNumber (so semantically similar to 'several' in English). An example of greaterPaucalNumber is found in Sursurunga (sgz): til main gam han suri tártár 2.GRPAU from here 2.PL go PURPOSE chop on á kakau káián Himaul viles, honin it TOPIC cacao its Himaul village today dilhat má lu tangkabin sirai má ... 3.GRPAU EMPHATIC HABITUAL begin selling now "You all from here (i.e. from this village) went to slash (for burning then planting) Himaul village's cacao, which already they (i.e. people from Himaul) have begun to sell ..." Hutchisson uses the term 'quadral' for Greater Paucal; see the terminology notes for a comment on this [Corbett 2000: 28].
GreaterPaucalNumber Update Definition value GreaterPaucal is a number property that quantifies the denotation of the nominal element so that it specifies that there are a small number of distinct entities, greater than paucalNumber but less than pluralNumber (semantically similar to 'several' in English). An example of greaterPaucalNumber is found in Sursurunga (sgz): til main gam han suri tártár 2.GRPAU from here 2.PL go PURPOSE chop on á kakau káián Himaul viles, honin it TOPIC cacao its Himaul village today dilhat má lu tangkabin sirai má ... 3.GRPAU EMPHATIC HABITUAL begin selling now "You all from here (i.e. from this village) went to slash (for burning then planting) Himaul village's cacao, which already they (i.e. people from Himaul) have begun to sell ..." Hutchisson uses the term 'quadral' for Greater Paucal; see the terminology notes for a comment on this [Corbett 2000: 28].
GreaterPaucalNumber Update Definition value GreaterPaucal is a number property that quantifies the denotation of the nominal element so that it specifies that there are a small number of distinct entities, greater than paucalNumber but less than pluralNumber (semantically similar to 'several' in English).
GreaterPluralNumber Update Definition value GreaterPlural is a number property that expresses (a) the fact that there is an excessive number of events or entities denoted by the noun or nominal element, or (b) the fact that the noun or nominal denotes all possible instances.[Kibort, Anna and Greville G. Corbett 2008]
GreaterPluralNumber Update Definition value GreaterPlural is a number property that expresses (a) the fact that there is an excessive number of events or entities denoted by the noun or nominal element, or (b) the fact that the noun or nominal denotes all possible instances.[Kibort and Corbett 2008]
GreaterPluralNumber Update Definition value GreaterPlural is a number property that expresses (a) the fact that there is an excessive number of events or entities denoted by the noun or nominal element, or (b) the fact that the noun or nominal denotes all possible instances. [Kibort and Corbett 2008]
GreaterPluralNumber Update Definition value GreaterPlural is a number property that expresses (a) the fact that there is an excessive number of events or entities denoted by the noun or nominal element, or (b) the fact that the noun or nominal denotes all possible instances. [Kibort and Corbett 2008b]
Group New Definition value (n.) (1) A term used in Hallidayan grammar to refer to a unit on the rank scale intermediate between clause and word. For example, in the sentence 'The car was parked in the street', 'the car' is a nominal group, 'was parked' is a verbal group, and 'in the street' is an adverbial group. The term Phrase is an equivalent in most other approaches. [Crystal 2008: 22]
Group Delete Definition value Group is the class of syntactic constructions intermediate between the level of word and phrase.
Group Update Definition value A term used in Hallidayan grammar to refer to a unit on the rank scale intermediate between clause and word. For example, in the sentence 'The car was parked in the street', 'the car' is a nominal group, 'was parked' is a verbal group, and 'in the street' is an adverbial group. The term Phrase is an equivalent in most other approaches. [Crystal 2008: 22]
High New Definition value (adj.) One of the features of sound set up by Chomsky and Halle in their distinctive feature theory of phonology, to handle variations in place of articulation(cavity features). High sounds are a type of tongue-body feature, and defined articulatorily as those produced by raising the tongue above the level it holds in neutral position; close vowels and palatal/velar consonants are [+high]. Its opposite is non-high [-high] or LOW, referring to sounds produced without any such raising, as in open vowels and front consonants. [Crystal 2008: 22]
High New Definition value Description of the actual articulatory characteristics of vowels, and taken to specify the highest point of the tongue. In this view each vowel is characterized in terms of the distance of the highest point of the tongue from the roof of the mouth. [Ladefoged 1996: 282-285]
High Update Definition value Description of the actual articulatory characteristics of vowels, and taken to specify the highest point of the tongue. In this view each vowel is characterized in terms of the distance of the highest point of the tongue from the roof of the mouth. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 282-285]
High Delete Definition value Characterizing sounds produced with the tongue near the top of the mouth.
High Delete Definition value (adj.) One of the features of sound set up by Chomsky and Halle in their distinctive feature theory of phonology, to handle variations in place of articulation(cavity features). High sounds are a type of tongue-body feature, and defined articulatorily as those produced by raising the tongue above the level it holds in neutral position; close vowels and palatal/velar consonants are [+high]. Its opposite is non-high [-high] or LOW, referring to sounds produced without any such raising, as in open vowels and front consonants. [Crystal 2008: 22]
HortatoryForce New Definition value (adj./n.) A term sometimes used in the grammatical analysis of verbs, to refer to a type of modal meaning in which an exhortation is made. An example of a hortative usage (‘a hortative’) is the ‘let us’ construction in English ('let us pray'). [Crystal 2008: 232]
HortatoryForce Delete Definition value HortatoryForce indicates that the hearer, possibly together with speaker, is admonished or to allow others to take action.
HortatoryForce Update Definition value A term sometimes used in the grammatical analysis of verbs, to refer to a type of modal meaning in which an exhortation is made. An example of a hortative usage ('a hortative') is the 'let us' construction in English ('let us pray'). [Crystal 2008: 232]
HumanGender Update Definition value A grammatical category used for analysis of word-classes displaying such contrasts as masculine/feminine/neuter, animate/inanimate, etc. It is also important to distinguish natural gender, items referring to the sex of real-world entities, and grammatical gender, which does not always correspond to sex, but which has an important role in signaling grammatical relations between words in a sentence. [Crystal 1985: 133]
HumanLanguageVariety New Definition value A term used in sociolinguistics and stylistics to refer to any system of linguistic expression whose use is governed by situational variables. In some cases, the situational distinctiveness of the language may be easily stated, as in many regional and occupational varieties; in other cases, as in studies of social class, the varieties are more difficult to define, involving the intersection of several variables. [Crystal 1997: 408]
HumanLanguageVariety Delete Definition value Human language variety is the class of all discrete entities (as identified by a linguist) that are considered systems of signs in their own right, emerge gradually as a cultural artifact, and are used by a particular community for communication.
ImmediateFutureTense Update Definition value ImmediateFutureTense, also called 'close future', locates the situation in question shortly after the moment of utterance [Dahl 1985: 121; Comrie 1985: 94; Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 244-245].
ImperativeForce Update Definition value Imperative force indicates that the speaker requests or demands action on the part of the hearer. [E-MELD 2005]
ImperativeForce Update Definition value Imperative force indicates that the speaker requests or demands action on the part of the hearer.
ImperativeForce New Definition value (adj./n.) A term used in the grammatical classification of sentence types, and usually seen in contrast to indicative, interrogative, etc. An imperative usage (‘an imperative’) refers to verb forms or sentence/clause types typically used in the expression of commands, e.g. 'Go away!' [Crystal 2008: 23]
ImperativeForce Delete Definition value Imperative force indicates that the speaker requests or demands action on the part of the hearer.
ImperativeForce Update Definition value A term used in the grammatical classification of sentence types, and usually seen in contrast to indicative, interrogative, etc. An imperative usage (‘an imperative’) refers to verb forms or sentence/clause types typically used in the expression of commands, e.g. 'Go away!' [Crystal 2008: 23]
ImperfectiveAspect Update Definition value A value of Aspect Property assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that which indicates that the event spoken about is to be looked at from inside, from within its temporal boundaries; imperfective aspect is crucially concerned with the internal temporal structure of the event [Comrie 1976: 16ff]. Typically, for an aspect value to be labelled as Imperfective, the aspectual meaning has to minimally express the imperfective viewpoint, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings, or actionality distinctions. Imperfective aspectual meaning can be further subdivided into two types: habitual meaning and continuous meaning. These two aspectual meanings may or may not be grammaticalised as separate aspect values. [Kibort 2008c: 7]
InablativeCase Update Definition value InablativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from within which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from within'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing InablativeCase, namely -aš [Kibrik 1998: 470].
InablativeCase Update Definition value InablativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from within which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from within'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing InablativeCase, namely -aš. He gives the example 'aInš-l-a-š' ('aIns' = 'apple'). [Kibrik 1998: 470-471]
InallativeCase Update Definition value InallativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the region that is inside the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards in(side)'. Kibrik says that Archi has a nominal spatial form expressing InallativeCase, namely -aši [Kibrik 1998: 470].
InallativeCase Update Definition value InallativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the region that is inside the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards in(side)'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing InallativeCase, namely -aši [Kibrik 1998: 470].
IncorporatingAntipassiveVoice Update Definition value Blocks the patient or logical object (basic absolutive) nominal from being assigned Focus salience. This correlates with the patient's morphosyntactic downgrading, whereby it becomes insusceptible to any informational salience assignment. [Klaiman 1991: 236]
IncorporatingAntipassiveVoice Update Definition value Blocks the patient or logical object (basic absolutive) nominal from being assigned Focus salience. There is no explicit case marking on the patient, and the patient is invariably nonreferential. This correlates with the patient's morphosyntactic downgrading, whereby it becomes insusceptible to any informational salience assignment. [Klaiman 1991: 232-236]
IndicativeMood New Definition value (adj.) A term used in the grammatical classification of sentence types, and usually seen in contrast to imperative, subjunctive, etc., moods. It refers to verb forms or sentence/clause types used in the expression of statements and questions, e.g. the horse is walking. With reference to statements, the term ‘declarative’ may be used. [Crystal 2008: 242]
IndicativeMood Delete Definition value IndicativeMood indicates that the speaker believes the expression to be true.
IndicativeMood Update Definition value A term used in the grammatical classification of sentence types, and usually seen in contrast to imperative, subjunctive, etc., moods. It refers to verb forms or sentence/clause types used in the expression of statements and questions, e.g. the horse is walking. With reference to statements, the term ‘declarative’ may be used. [Crystal 2008: 242]
InformationalForce Update Definition value InformationalForce indicates that the hearer is to relate to the informational content of what is expressed. Informational force subsumes Declarative, Speculative and Interrogative force.
InterablativeCase Update Definition value InterablativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from between which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from in between'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing InterablativeCase, namely -qIaš [Kibrik 1998: 470].
InterallativeCase Update Definition value InterallativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the region that is in the middle of the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards the middle of'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing InterallativeCase, namely -qIaši [Kibrik 1998: 470].
InteressiveCase Update Definition value InteressiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location between which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'between'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing InessiveCase, namely -qI [Kibrik 1998: 470].
InteressiveCase Update Definition value InteressiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location between which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'between'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing InteressiveCase, namely -qI [Kibrik 1998: 470].
InterlativeCase Update Definition value InterlativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location between which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'to the middle of'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing InterlativeCase, namely -qIak [Kibrik 1998: 470].
InterminativeCase Update Definition value Expresses the notion of something moving into the inside of a reference of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'into the inside of'.
InterminativeCase Update Definition value Expresses the notion of something moving into the inside of a reference of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'into the inside of'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing InterminativeCase, namely -akana [Kibrik 1998: 470].
InterrogativeForce New Definition value (adj./n.) A term used in the grammatical classification of sentence types, and usually seen in contrast to declarative. It refers to verb forms or sentence/clause types typically used in the expression of questions, e.g. the inverted order of 'is he coming?' or the use of an interrogative word (or simple ‘interrogative’), often subclassified as interrogative adjectives (e.g. which), adverbs (e.g. why) and pronouns (e.g. who). [Crystal 2008: 245]
InterrogativeForce Delete Definition value Interrogative force indicates that the speaker lacks certain knowledge about what is expressed, and may thereby be seeking information from the hearer. In that case, it is equivalent to a type of imperative: "Tell me ...".
InterrogativeForce Update Definition value A term used in the grammatical classification of sentence types, and usually seen in contrast to declarative. It refers to verb forms or sentence/clause types typically used in the expression of questions, e.g. the inverted order of 'is he coming?' or the use of an interrogative word (or simple ‘interrogative’), often subclassified as interrogative adjectives (e.g. which), adverbs (e.g. why) and pronouns (e.g. who). [Crystal 2008: 245]
InterrogativeProform Update Definition value An InterrogativeProform is a Proform that is used in questions to stand for the item questioned. [Shopen 1985: 34]
InterrogativeProform Update Definition value An InterrogativeProform is a Proform that is used in questions to stand for the item questioned. [Schachter 1985: 34]
InterterminativeCase Update Definition value InterterminativeCase expresses the notion of something moving into the middle of the referent of the noun it marks, but not through it. It has the meaning 'into the middle of'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing InterterminativeCase, namely -qIakana [Kibrik 1998: 470].
IntertranslativeCase Update Definition value IntertranslativeCase expresses the notion of something moving along a trajectory between the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'along the in between'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing IntertranslativeCase, namely -qIaXut [Kibrik 1998: 470].
Intransitivizer Update Concept parent DerivationalUnit
Intransitivizer Update Definition value A derivational unit that derives intransitive verbs from transitive verb (stems).
Intransitivizer Update Definition value A derivational unit that derives an intransitive verb from a transitive verb. [Hornby 2010 (p.c.)]
IntranslativeCase Update Definition value IntranslativeCase expresses the notion of something moving through the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'along through'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing IntranslativeCase, namely -aXut [Kibrik 1998: 470].
InverseVoice Update Definition value Signals when actions proceed from ontologically less salient to more salient participants. [Klaiman 1991: 32]
IrrealisMood New Definition value Where the proposition is weakly asserted to be true, but the speaker is not ready to support the assertion. Irrealis adverbs include 'maybe' and 'hopefully'. [Crystal 2008: 403]
IrrealisMood Delete Definition value A mood that indicates possible or conditional truth.
Isolate New Definition value (n.) In comparative linguistics, a term for language with little or no structural or historical relationship to any other language; also called an isolated language or a language isolate. Many such cases have been noted. They include languages which remain undeciphered, languages where there is insufficient material available to establish a family relationship, and languages where, despite a great deal of data, the relationship is undetermined. [Crystal 2008: 256]
Isolate Delete Definition value (n.) In comparative linguistics, a term for language with little or no structural or historical relationship to any other language; also called an isolated language or a language isolate. Many such cases have been noted. They include languages which remain undeciphered, languages where there is insufficient material available to establish a family relationship, and languages where, despite a great deal of data, the relationship is undetermined. [Crystal 2008: 256]
IterativeAspect Update Definition value IterativeAspect, also called repetitive, encodes a number of events of the same type that are repeated on a particular occasion. The time interval which is relevant to the iterative is relatively shorter than in the case of the habitual [Bybee 1985: 150; Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 127]. Portrays events repeated on the same occasion (like the iterative knocking on the door) [Bhat 1999: 53].
JussiveForce New Definition value Jussive mood is a directive mood that signals a speaker's command, permission, or agreement that the proposition expressed by his or her utterance be brought about. Jussive mood is typically applicable in the first and third person. [Chung and Timberlake 1985: 247; Mish 1991: 655; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 110; Palmer 1986: 10, 24, 39-40, 96, 110, 113]
JussiveForce Delete Definition value JussiveForce indicates a request for permission to take action.
JussiveForce Update Definition value The jussive has syntactic force and is directive in that it signals a speaker's command, permission, or agreement that the proposition expressed by his or her utterance be brought about. The jussive is typically applicable in the first and third person. The jussive [Chung and Timberlake 1985: 247; Mish 1991: 655; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 110; Palmer 1986: 10, 24, 39-40, 96, 110, 113, Schade 2005: 52]
JussiveForce Update Definition value The jussive has syntactic force and is directive in that it signals a speaker's command, permission, or agreement that the proposition expressed by his or her utterance be brought about. The jussive is typically applicable in the first and third person. The jussive [Chung and Timberlake 1985: 247; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 110; Palmer 1986: 10, 24, 39-40, 96, 110, 113, Schade 2005: 52]
JussiveForce Update Definition value The jussive has syntactic force and is directive in that it signals a speaker's command, permission, or agreement that the proposition expressed by his or her utterance be brought about. The jussive is typically applicable in the first and third person. [Chung and Timberlake 1985: 247; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 110; Palmer 1986: 10, 24, 39-40, 96, 110, 113, Schade 2005: 52]
LabialProperty New Definition value Gestures involving the lips are said to be Labial. From the linguistic point of view the places of articulation can usefully be classified into a smaller number of groups based on the articulators they share. If consonants in which either the upper or lower lip is involved as an articulator are classified as Labials then there are three place classes among Labial sounds: the lower lip can articulate with the upper lip (bilabial), or the upper teeth (labiodentals)l and, the upper lip can also be the target for the tongue (linguo-labial). [Ladefoged 1996: 10; 15-15]
LabialProperty Update Definition value Gestures involving the lips are said to be Labial. From the linguistic point of view the places of articulation can usefully be classified into a smaller number of groups based on the articulators they share. If consonants in which either the upper or lower lip is involved as an articulator are classified as Labials then there are three place classes among Labial sounds: the lower lip can articulate with the upper lip (bilabial), or the upper teeth (labiodentals)l and, the upper lip can also be the target for the tongue (linguo-labial). [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 10; 15-15]
LabialProperty Delete Definition value The class of properties associated with characteristics of labial articulations [Ladefoged 1997: 594].
Language New Definition value The most fundamental means of human communication. Language is a purely human activity, although some animals have communication systems which have certain analogies to human language. All human beings use language to interact with other members of the same speech community. Language is not only used as an instrument of communication, however, but also as a means of individual expression. Language is not instinctive; it has to be learnt as a system of arbitrary conventional symbols. Such symbols are primarily vocal, produced by the so-called organs of speech, but secondary systems such as writing and other codes may complement the vocalsystem. Some linguists, such as F. de Saussure, have stressed the view of language as general patterns in the speech of a community and as the speaking activity of an individual in a particular situation; others, with N.Chomsky, regard language as the innate capability of native speakers to understand and form grammatical sentences as as the actual utterances produced at a given time. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 123-124]
Language Delete Definition value The concept of a language is very difficult to define axiomatically. Here, we say that a language is a subclass of GeneticTaxon above the level of dialect. Language, in this sense, is often defined according to mutual intelligibility among its speakers, when the speakers of the language are located in the same general location, the sharing of a common writing system, or the sharing of a common literature.
LanguageFamily New Definition value Group of languages that are genetically related, i.e can be traced to a common proto-language. The ordering of languages into a common language family is usually based on phonological, morphological, and lexical correspondences that stem from the proto-language. The term ‘language family’ is not always the same; in its broader sense, it refers to the largest spectrum of languages for which a genetic relationship can be demonstrated. [Bussmann 1996: 262]
LanguageFamily Delete Definition value LanguageFamily is a relatively broad grouping of languages. In a given language family, all languages are genetically related.
LanguageFamily Update Definition value Group of languages that are genetically related, i.e can be traced to a common proto-language. The ordering of languages into a common language family is usually based on phonological, morphological, and lexical correspondences that stem from the proto-language. ... it refers to the largest spectrum of languages for which a genetic relationship can be demonstrated. [Bussmann 1996: 262]
LanguageStock New Definition value A language stock is a grouping of language families all of which are descended from a single language. The relationship between these families is more distant in time and the differences between languages are greater than those within a single language family. For example, the Indo-European stock includes the Germanic, Romance, and Slavic language families as well as several other families. [Wise 1994]
LanguageStock Delete Definition value LanguageStock is a wide grouping of languages based on genetic affiliation and at a higher level than a LanguageFamily. LanguageStock is defined according to the existence of language families.
LanguageStock Update Definition value A term used for postulated but undemonstrated higher-order, more inclusive families (proposed but as yet unproven distant genetic relationships). [Campbell 1999: 187]
LanguageSubfamily New Definition value Groupings within a family may be referred to as sub-families. [Crystal 2008: 185]
LanguageSubfamily New Definition value LanguageSubfamily (also called subgroup or branch) refers 'to a group of languages within a language family which are more closely related to each other than to other languages of that family.' [Campbell 1998: 187]
LanguageSubfamily Delete Definition value LanguageSubfamily is a grouping of languages defined more narrowly than a LanguageFamily. In a given Subfamily, all languages are genetically related and are instances of the same LanguageFamily. For there to be a subfamily, there must be a family.
LanguageSubfamily Delete Definition value Groupings within a family may be referred to as sub-families. [Crystal 2008: 185]
LanguageSubfamily Update Definition value LanguageSubfamily (also called subgroup or branch) refers 'to a group of languages within a language family which are more closely related to each other than to other languages of that family.' [Campbell 1999: 187]
LaryngealProperty Update Definition value The laryngeal setting refers to differences in the timing of laryngeal activity in relation to oral articulation. Most languages have phonemic contrasts between classes of stops which differ in the mode of action of the larynx, or in the timing of laryngeal activity. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 47]
LateralProperty New Definition value (adj./n.) A term used in the phonetic classification of consonant sounds on the basis of their manner of articulation: it refers to any sound where the air escapes around one or both sides of a closure made in the mouth, as in the various types of 'l' sound. [Crystal 2008: 270]
LateralProperty Delete Definition value Characterizing sounds involving air released through side of the mouth.
LateralProperty Update Definition value A term used in the phonetic classification of consonant sounds on the basis of their manner of articulation: it refers to any sound where the air escapes around one or both sides of a closure made in the mouth, as in the various types of 'l' sound. [Crystal 2008: 270]
LateralProperty New Definition value Obstruction of the airstream at a point along the center of the oral tract, with complete closure between one or both sides of the tongue and the roof of the mouth. [Ladefoged 2000: 11]
LateralProperty Delete Definition value A term used in the phonetic classification of consonant sounds on the basis of their manner of articulation: it refers to any sound where the air escapes around one or both sides of a closure made in the mouth, as in the various types of 'l' sound. [Crystal 2008: 270]
LexicalItem New Definition value A unit of the vocabulary of a language such as a word, phrase or term as listed in a dictionary. It usually has a pronounceable or graphic form, fulfils a grammatical role in a sentence, and carries semantic meaning. [Hartman and Stork 1972: 128]
LexicalItem Update Definition value A unit of the vocabulary of a language such as a word, phrase or term as listed in a dictionary. It usually has a pronounceable or graphic form, fulfils a grammatical role in a sentence, and carries semantic meaning. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 128]
LexicalItem Delete Definition value The information structure used to encode all the information associated with an entry in a dictionary.
LexicalizedConcept New Definition value Grammatical or semantic category expressed by a lexical item, e.g. English ‘make’ + ‘dead’ together are lexicalized as 'kill', in German ‘tot’ + ‘machen’ > 'toeten', or the close linking of lexical items in an idiomatic phrase. [Hartman and Stork 1972: 129]
LexicalizedConcept Update Definition value Grammatical or semantic category expressed by a lexical item, e.g. English ‘make’ + ‘dead’ together are lexicalized as 'kill', in German ‘tot’ + ‘machen’ > 'toeten', or the close linking of lexical items in an idiomatic phrase. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 129]
LexicalizedConcept Delete Definition value LexicalizedConcept is the class of semantic units that are expressed as grammatical atoms in a language.
LexicalizedConcept Update Definition value Grammatical or semantic category expressed by a lexical item, e.g. English 'make' + 'dead' together are lexicalized as 'kill', in German 'tot' + 'machen' > 'töten', or the close linking of lexical items in an idiomatic phrase. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 129]
Lexicon New Definition value (n). In its most general sense, the term is synonymous with vocabulary. A dictionary can be seen as a set of lexical entries. The lexicon has a special status in generative grammar, where it refers to the component containing all the information about the structural properties of the lexical items in a language. [Crystal 2008: 278] In linguistics, however, we don’t normally speak of the vocabulary of a particular language; instead, we speak of the lexicon, the total store of words available to a speaker. Very commonly, the lexicon is not regarded merely as a long list of words. Rather, we conceive the lexicon as a set of lexical resources, including the morphemes of the languages, plus the processes available in the language for constructing words from those resources. Apart from the lexicon of a language as a whole, psycholinguists are interested in the mental lexicon, the words and lexical resources stored in an individual brain. [Trask 1999: 166-167]
Lexicon Delete Definition value A collection of LexicalItems.
Lexicon Update Definition value In its most general sense, the term is synonymous with vocabulary. A dictionary can be seen as a set of lexical entries. The lexicon has a special status in generative grammar, where it refers to the component containing all the information about the structural properties of the lexical items in a language. [Crystal 2008: 278] In linguistics, ... we don't normally speak of the vocabulary of a particular language; instead, we speak of the lexicon, the total store of words available to a speaker. Very commonly, the lexicon is not regarded merely as a long list of words. Rather, we conceive the lexicon as a set of lexical resources, including the morphemes of the languages, plus the processes available in the language for constructing words from those resources. Apart from the lexicon of a language as a whole, psycholinguists are interested in the mental lexicon, the words and lexical resources stored in an individual brain. [Trask 1999: 166-167]
Ligature New Definition value The merging of two or more letters (often for aesthetic reasons) from which a single, independent form is derived. [Bussmann 1996: 281]
Ligature Delete Definition value A Ligature is a special type of glyph composed by two or more basic glyphs fused together as a single symbol.
LinguisticExpression New Definition value Expression refers to the level of phonological or graphological form in which meaning is represented. [Hartman and Stork 1972: 81]
LinguisticExpression Update Definition value Expression refers to the level of phonological or graphological form in which meaning is represented. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 81]
LinguisticExpression Delete Definition value Expression refers to the level of phonological or graphological form in which meaning is represented. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 81]
LinguisticProperty Update Definition value LinguisticProperty is the class of properties that pertain to linguistic units. A unit's properties determine its behavior in a grammatical system. Specific kinds of properties are relevant to certain types of units. In some language, for example, tense properties may be relevant for verbs. See also Feature and FeatureValue for the corresponding data structure for properties.
LinguisticSystem New Definition value A syntactic system, together with a collection of situations, so that relative to these situations the expressions of the syntactic system form a semantic system which is related to the syntactic system according to continuous compositionality. A linguistic system is a structured transformation system. [Goertzel 1994]
LinguisticSystem Update Definition value A term used to describe a language as a whole, with each of its component parts functioning according to an overall convention of usage to enable the members of a speech community to interchange information. Most linguists agree on a 'system of systems', i.e. the arrangement of units on hierarchically ordered and inter-related levels. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 231]
LinguisticSystem Delete Definition value LinguisticSystem is the class of languages, broadly construed. It includes human, animal, and computer language. Furthermore, it includes natural and constructed varieties as well as written, signed, and spoken varieties.
LinguisticUnit New Definition value This term is often used in linguistics and phonetics to refer to any entity which constitutes the focus of an enquiry. The unit is the stretch of language that carries grammatical patterns, and within which grammatical choices are made. For example, the unit sentence consists of one or more instances of the unit clause, and so on. [Crystal 2008: 503]
LinguisticUnit Delete Definition value The class of all kinds of units, defined according to the particular level of linguistic analysis.
LivingVariety New Definition value A language which is the current native language of a speech community. [Hartman and Stork 1972: 133]
LivingVariety Update Definition value A language which is the current native language of a speech community. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 133]
LivingVariety Delete Definition value LivingVariety is the class of human language varieties that are currently in use and have native speakers.
LocativeCase New Definition value (adj./n.) In languages which express grammatical relationships by means of inflections, this term refers to the form taken by a noun phrase (often a single noun or pronoun), when it typically expresses the idea of location of an entity or action. Structures which express locational meaning may also be referred to as locative, e.g. in 'The woman was standing at a bus stop', 'at a bus stop' could be called a locative phrase. [Crystal 2008: 288]
LocativeCase Delete Definition value Category of case that denotes that the referent of the noun it marks is a location.
Low New Definition value Adj. 1. (of a vowel) Articulated with the highest point of the tongue more or less maximally distant from the roof of the mouth. 2. In the SPE feature system, a distinctive feature defined as ‘articulated with the body of the tongue below the neutral position. [Trask 1996: 212]
Low Delete Definition value Characterizing sounds produced with the tongue near the bottom of the mouth.
Low Update Definition value Articulated with the highest point of the tongue more or less maximally distant from the roof of the mouth. In the SPE feature system, a distinctive feature defined as 'articulated with the body of the tongue below the neutral position.' [Trask 1996: 212]
MalefactiveCase Update Definition value Opposite of BenefactiveCase; used when the marked noun is adversely affected in the clause. [Zuniga and Kittila, 2010: 5]
MalefactiveCase Update Definition value Opposite of BenefactiveCase; used when the marked noun is adversely affected in the clause. [Zúñiga and Kittilä 2010: 5]
MannerProperty New Definition value A sound property referring to the kind of articulatory process used in a sound's production. The distinction between vowel and consonant is usually made in terms of manner of articulation. Within consonants, several articulatory types are recognized based on the type of closure made by the vocal organs. Within vowels, classification is based on the number of auditory qualities distinguishable in the sound, the position of the soft palate, and the type of lip position. [Crystal 1997: 232]
MannerProperty Delete Definition value A property of sounds that focuses on the active articulator and how the airstream is obstructed.
MasculineGender New Definition value A gender property established on the basis of agreement, to which nouns may be assigned based on semantic or formal criteria. In semantic gender systems, nouns belonging to the masculine gender typically denote male humans as well as nouns meeting certain physical criteria. Some gender systems differentiate masculine nouns from all other nouns (e.g. masculine/other or male human/other), while others differentiate masculine, feminine and neuter nouns. [Corbett 1991: 30]
MasculineGender Update Definition value A gender property established on the basis of agreement, to which nouns may be assigned based on semantic or formal criteria. In semantic gender systems, nouns belonging to the masculine gender typically denote male humans as well as nouns meeting certain physical criteria. Some gender systems differentiate masculine nouns from all other nouns (e.g. masculine/other or male human/other), while others differentiate masculine, feminine and neuter nouns or several different gender classes. [Corbett 1991: 30]
MentalAbilitiveModality Update Definition value MentalAbilitiveModality indicates that an agent has the capacity to perform some mental action [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 192; Palmer 2001: 77].
Mid Update Definition value Characterizing sounds produced with the tongue near the bottom of the mouth. [Ladefoged 2000, 12-14]
Mid Update Definition value Characterizing sounds produced with the tongue near the bottom of the mouth. [Ladefoged 2000: 12-14]
Mid Update Definition value Characterizing sounds articulated between the high and low tongue positions. [Crystal 1987: 425]
MinusATR New Definition value PlusATR (advanced tongue root) characterizes sounds made with the root of the tongue drawn forward and the larynx lowered so that the part of the vocal tract in the pharynx is considerably enlarged. [Ladefoged 2000: 211]
MinusATR Update Definition value MinusATR (Advanced Tongue Root) characterizes sounds made in which there is no advancement of the tongue root or lowering of the larynx. [Ladefoged 2000: 211]
MinusATR Delete Definition value Characterizing sounds made with the tongue root in the neutral position.
MinusNasal New Definition value Characterizing sounds in which the palatal tensor muscles and the levator palatine muscle raise the velum, preventing air from escaping through the nose. [Kenstowicz 1994: 143; Ladefoged 2000: 274]
MinusNasal Delete Definition value Characterizing sounds produced with no air escaping through the nose.
Modal Update Definition value The way in which a speaker can express his attitude towards a situation in interpersonal communication, usually realised in English by modal auxiliaries. [Hartmann, Stork 1972: 142]
Modal Update Definition value The way in which a speaker can express his attitude towards a situation in interpersonal communication, usually realised in English by modal auxiliaries. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 142]
Modal New Definition value A part of speech, usually associated with a verbal system, that expresses the concept of necessity and possibility, as well as the subject's attitude toward the factuality or actualization of the situation expressed by the rest of the clause. Modals can code inception, termination, persistence, success, failure, attempt, intent, obligation or ability vis-a-vis the complement state/event, and the subject of the main clause is obligatorily also the subject of the complement clause. [Palmer 2001: 2; Givon 1984: 533; Huddleston and Pullam 2002: 173]
Modal Delete Definition value The way in which a speaker can express his attitude towards a situation in interpersonal communication, usually realised in English by modal auxiliaries. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 142]
ModalityProperty Update Definition value ModalityProperty is the class of properties that concern the grammatical encoding of the status of the proposition itself, and not of the event to which the proposition refers, cf. AspectProperty . As a grammatical property, it represents those dimensions in the domains of knowledge (epistemic modality), social relations (deontic modality) and ability (abilitative modality), and possibly others. [Palmer 2001: 1]
ModalityProperty Update Definition value ModalityProperty is the class of properties that concern the grammatical encoding of the status of the proposition itself, and not of the event to which the proposition refers, cf. AspectProperty . As a grammatical property, it represents those dimensions in the domains of knowledge (epistemic modality), social relations (deontic modality) and ability (abilitative modality), and possibly others. [Palmer 2001: 1, 7-10]
ModalityProperty Update Definition value ModalityProperty is the class of properties that concern the grammatical encoding of the status of the proposition itself, and not of the event to which the proposition refers, cf. AspectProperty. As a grammatical property, it represents those dimensions in the domains of knowledge (epistemic modality), social relations (deontic modality) and ability (abilitative modality), and possibly others. [Palmer 2001: 1, 7-10]
ModalVoice Update Definition value Regular vibrations of the vocal folds at any frequency within the speaker's normal range. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 48]
MoodProperty Update Definition value MoodProperty is the class of properties that concern the grammatical encoding of mood of a proposition. Among the traditionally defined properties are Declarative, Imperative and Interrogative. These properties contain both attitude (e.g. optative, volitive, subjunctive) and speech-act (e.g. imperative, commissive) values.
MoodProperty Update Definition value MoodProperty is the class of properties that concern the grammatical encoding of mood of a proposition. Among the traditionally defined properties are Declarative, Imperative and Interrogative. This class of properties contains both attitude (e.g. optative, volitive, subjunctive) and speech-act (e.g. imperative, commissive) values.
MoodProperty New Definition value Mood consists of grammatical distinctions in verb forms which express a speaker's attitude to what he is saying. Moods may be distinguished by means of inflexions, e.g. special subjunctive forms in French, German, etc., or by the use of auxiliaries in English. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 144]
MoodProperty Delete Definition value Mood consists of grammatical distinctions in verb forms which express a speaker's attitude to what he is saying. Moods may be distinguished by means of inflexions, e.g. special subjunctive forms in French, German, etc., or by the use of auxiliaries in English. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 144]
MorphologicalUnit New Definition value The smallest functioning unit in the composition of words, and the minimal distinctive unit of grammar. Morphemes are commonly classified into free forms (morphemes which can occur as separate words) adn bound forms (morphemes which cannot so occur - mainly affixes). A further distinction may be made between lexical and grammatical morphemes; the former are morphemes used for the construction of new words in a language; the latter are morphemes used to express grammatical relationships between a word and its context. [Crystal 2008: 300]
MorphologicalUnit Delete Definition value MorphologicalUnit subsumes all grammatical units below the level of the syntactic word. Only a morphological unit may be a constituent of another morphological unit.
MorphosemanticProperty New Definition value A property whose values are not involved in agreement or government, but are inherent only. That is, the elements on which the values are found are not controllers of agreement. Because it is not involved in either agreement or government, a morphosemantic feature is not relevant to syntax. [Kibort 2008]
MorphosemanticProperty Delete Definition value Linguistic properties having a semantic component.
MorphosemanticProperty Update Definition value A property whose values are not involved in agreement or government, but are inherent only. That is, the elements on which the values are found are not controllers of agreement. Because it is not involved in either agreement or government, a morphosemantic feature is not relevant to syntax. [Kibort 2008c: 16]
MorphosemanticProperty Update Definition value A property whose values are not involved in agreement or government, but are inherent only. That is, the elements on which the values are found are not controllers of agreement. Because it is not involved in either agreement or government, a morphosemantic feature is not relevant to syntax. [Kibort 2008f]
MultalNumber New Definition value A quantifier that denotes a large amount or number, a high degree, etc. [Smitterberg 2009: 121]
MultalNumber Delete Definition value A quantifier that denotes a large amount or number, a high degree, etc. [Smitterberg 2009: 121]
NasalityProperty New Definition value The class of properties that describe the degree to which the velum or soft palate is raised or lowered, allowing or prohibiting air from escaping through the nose. [Kenstowicz 1994: 143]
NasalityProperty Delete Definition value The class of properties used to characterize the degree to which air escapes through the nose.
NearFutureTense New Definition value In languages which distinguish different degrees of remoteness in the future, the near future refers to the least remote future. [Comrie 1985: 46]
NearFutureTenses Delete Concept
NecessityModality Update Definition value NecessityModality indicates that the described state of affairs is necessary [Palmer 2001: 89-90], either directly, or because of a requirement on the part of an agent [Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 177].
NecessityModality Update Definition value NecessityModality indicates that the described state of affairs is necessary [Palmer 2001: 89-90], either directly, or because of a requirement on the part of an agent [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 177].
NegationOperator New Definition value NegationOperator is a negative-marking phrase in scope position of the verb (specifier or adjoined position). Also called "negation particles", they are normally associated with the main verb of the clause but may also be clause-level clitics.
NegationOperator Update Definition value NegationOperator is a negative-marking phrase in scope position of the verb (specifier or adjoined position). Also called "negation particles", they are normally associated with the main verb of the clause but may also be clause-level clitics.[Payne 2007:284; Haegeman 1995: 107, 286]
NegationOperator Update Definition value NegationOperator is a negative-marking phrase located in scope position of the verb (specifier or adjoined position). Also called a "negation particle", it is normally associated with the main verb of the clause but may also be aclause-level clitic.[Payne 2007:284; Haegeman 1995: 107, 286]
NegationOperator Update Definition value NegationOperator is a negative-marking phrase located in scope position of the verb (specifier or adjoined position). Also called a "negation particle", it is normally associated with the main verb of the clause but may also be a clause-level clitic.[Payne 2007:284; Haegeman 1995: 107, 286]
NegationOperator Delete Definition value no documentation yet
NeuterGender Update Definition value A gender property established on the basis of agreement, to which nouns may be assigned, either by a semantic rule, if they belong to the semantic residue of the assignment system, or by a formal rule, if assignment depends on inflectional class membership. Typically, this means that the neuter gender may cover some inanimates and possibly some portion of lower order animates. Note: Although in familiar Indo-European languages the term neuter gender may be part of a system with three or less values, it can be used for systems containing more than three gender values (e.g. Bininj Gunwok [Kibort and Corbett 2008a]).
NeuterGender Update Definition value A gender property established on the basis of agreement, to which nouns may be assigned, either by a semantic rule, if they belong to the semantic residue of the assignment system, or by a formal rule, if assignment depends on inflectional class membership. Typically, this means that the neuter gender may cover some inanimates and possibly some portion of lower order animates. Note: Although in familiar Indo-European languages the term neuter gender may be part of a system with three or less values, it can be used for systems containing more than three gender values (e.g. Bininj Gunwok). [Kibort and Corbett 2008a]
NominalClassifier New Definition value A classifier used within a system of noun classes where the morphosyntactic loci are adjectives and, rarely, numerals, as modifiers. Nominal classifiers have all the properties of noun class system classifiers with differences regarding the size of the system (bigger); semantics (animacy/sex/shape/size), transparency of semantic basis (may be opaque), variability of assignment (possible), use in multiple classifier systems (possible), and interrelations with other categories (only with number). [Aikenvald 2003: 68]
NominalClassifier Delete Definition value suggested at E-MELD (no documentation yet)
NominalClassifier Update Definition value A classifier used within a system of noun classes where the morphosyntactic loci are adjectives and, rarely, numerals, as modifiers. Nominal classifiers have all the properties of noun class system classifiers with differences regarding the size of the system (bigger); semantics (animacy/sex/shape/size), transparency of semantic basis (may be opaque), variability of assignment (possible), use in multiple classifier systems (possible), and interrelations with other categories (only with number). [Aikhenvald 2003: 68]
Nominalizer New Definition value A derivational unit that forms a noun from some other word class. [Crystal 1997: 260]
Nominalizer Delete Definition value Nominalizer is the class of category changing units that change a verb or verb phrase to a corresponding nominal.
NonAbsolutiveAntipassiveVoice Update Definition value An Antipassive in which the patient or logical object is overtly downgraded [Klaiman 1991: 232].
NonAbsolutiveAntipassiveVoice Update Definition value An Antipassive in which the patient or logical object non supressed, as in the Absolutive Antipassive, but rather, is overtly downgraded. Some Mayanists distinguish between two types of Non Absolutive Antipassives: the Focus Antipassive and the Incorporating Antipassive. [Klaiman 1991: 232]
NonAbsolutiveAntipassiveVoice Update Definition value An Antipassive in which the patient or logical object is not supressed, as is the case in the Absolutive Antipassive, but rather, is overtly downgraded. Some Mayanists distinguish between two types of Non Absolutive Antipassives: the Focus Antipassive and the Incorporating Antipassive. [Klaiman 1991: 232]
NonProgressiveAspect Update Definition value A value of Aspect Property (also stative aspect) assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that which indicates that the situation spoken about has internal temporal structure, it cannot be regarded as habitual, but is regarded as a continuing state. Hence, Nonprogressive Aspect can be regarded as a sub-type of continuousness (which, in turn, is a sub-type of imperfectivity). Since languages have different criteria for classifying predicates as stative or not, they may have different rules for determining when explicitly nonprogressive (i.e. explicitly stative) forms can be used. Typically, for an aspect value to be labelled as Nonprogressive, the aspectual meaning has to minimally express nonprogressiveness, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings, or actionality distinctions. [Kibort 2008c: 8]
Noun New Definition value A term used in the grammatical classification of words, traditionally defines as the "name of a person, place or thing," but the vagueness associated with the notions of "name" and "thing" (e.g. is 'beauty' a thing?) has led linguistic descriptions to analyze this class in terms of the formal and functional criteria of syntax and morphology. In linguistic terms, nouns are items which display certain types of inflection (e.g. of case or number), have a specific distribution (e.g. they may follow prepositions but not, say, modals), and perform a specific syntactic function (e.g. as subject or object of a sentence). Nouns are generally subclassified into common and proper types, and analyzed in terms of number, gender, case and countability. (Crystal 2008: 320)
Noun Delete Definition value A noun is a broad classification of parts of speech usually identifying time-stable concept [Crystal 1997: 371].
Noun Update Definition value A term used in the grammatical classification of words, traditionally defines as the "name of a person, place or thing," but the vagueness associated with the notions of "name" and "thing" (e.g. is 'beauty' a thing?) has led linguistic descriptions to analyze this class in terms of the formal and functional criteria of syntax and morphology. In linguistic terms, nouns are items which display certain types of inflection (e.g. of case or number), have a specific distribution (e.g. they may follow prepositions but not, say, modals), and perform a specific syntactic function (e.g. as subject or object of a sentence). Nouns are generally subclassified into common and proper types, and analyzed in terms of number, gender, case and countability. [Crystal 2008: 320]
NounPhrase New Definition value Also called nominal groups, nouns phrases are the constructions into which nouns most commonly enter and of which they are the head word. The structure of a noun phrase consists minimally of the noun (or noun substitute, such as a pronoun); the constructions preceding and following the noun are often described under the headings of premodification and postmodification respectively. (Crystal 2008: 320)
NounPhrase Delete Definition value NounPhrase is the class of phrases that have nouns as heads. They can play the role of subject in a main clause.
NounPhrase Update Definition value Also called nominal groups, nouns phrases are the constructions into which nouns most commonly enter and of which they are the head word. The structure of a noun phrase consists minimally of the noun (or noun substitute, such as a pronoun); the constructions preceding and following the noun are often described under the headings of premodification and postmodification respectively. [Crystal 2008: 320]
NumeralClassifier Update Definition value Numeral classifiers are a grammatical device that reflects how speakers categorize objects that they count or quantify. [Yamamoto 2005: 1]
NumeralClassifier Update Definition value Numeral classifiers are a grammatical device that reflects how speakers categorize objects that they count or quantify [Yamamoto 2005: 1]. They are a set of classifiers used in certain languages, e.g., Japanese, to indicate the class to which the noun modified by the numeral belongs [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 23].
NumeralClassifier New Definition value Numeral classifiers are free or bound morphemes that occur in the context of quantification, appearing contiguous to numerals in numeral noun phrases and expressions of quantity. [Aikhenvald 2003: 98; Aikhenvald in Senft 2000: 93]
Object New Definition value Corresponds roughly to the class of ordinary objects. Examples include normal physical objects, geographical regions, and locations of processes, the complement of objects in the physical class. In a 4D ontology, an object is something whose spatiotemporal extent is thought of as dividing into spatial parts roughly parallel to the time-axis. [SUMO 2010]
Object Delete Definition value Any entity that is stable throughout time and has other objects as parts. At any point in time, an object is wholly present. See SUMO for a detailed explanation.
ObligativeModality Update Definition value ObligativeModality indicates that an agent is required to perform the action expressed by the predicate [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 177; Palmer 2001: 71].
Ontology New Definition value An explicit specification of a representational vocabulary for a shared domain of discourse. [Gruger 1993: 1]
Ontology Update Concept parent
Ontology Update Concept parent
Ontology Update Definition value An explicit specification of a representational vocabulary for a shared domain of discourse. [Gruber 1993: 1-2]
Ontology Update Definition value An explicit specification of a representational vocabulary for a shared domain of discourse. [Gruber 1993: 199]
OptativeMood Update Definition value Optative indicates that the speaker wishes or hopes that the expressed proposition be the case [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 179; Palmer 2001: 204].
orderingRelation New Domain uri http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticUnit
orderingRelation New Range uri http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticUnit
orderingRelation Update Concept parent
OrthographicPart Update Definition value An OrthographicPart is a unit of an orthography that is not orthographically independent, that is, not necessarily able to stand alone as an orthographic word set off by whitespace. In the printed instance of the word 'conceive', 'eive' is an instance of orthographic part. Note that an orthographic part is not the same as a single glyph, although, some orthographic parts are single glyphs.
OtherSourceEvidentiality New Definition value An indication that the source of information is someone other than the speaker. [Aikhenvald 2006: 106]
OtherSourceEvidentiality Delete Definition value OtherSourceEvidentiality indicates that the agent relies on another source for their belief in what they say.
Particle New Definition value A term used to refer to an invariable item with grammatical function, especially one which does not readily fit into a standard classification of parts of speech. [Crystal 1997: 279-80]
Particle Delete Definition value A particle is a part of speech whose members do not belong to one of the main classes of words, is invariable, and can have grammatical or semantic significance.
Particle Update Definition value A term used to refer to an invariable item with grammatical function, especially one which does not readily fit into a standard classification of parts of speech. [Crystal 1997: 279-280]
PartitiveCase Update Definition value PartitiveCase expresses the partial nature of the referent of the noun it marks, as opposed to expressing the whole unit or class of which the referent is a part. This case may be found in items such as the following: existential clauses, nouns that are accompanied by numerals or units of measure, or predications of material from which something is made. It often has a meaning similar to the English word 'some'. [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 161; Richards, Platt and Weber 1985: 208; Quirk et al. 1985: 249; Sebeok 1946: 1214]
PartOfSpeechProperty New Definition value The property that identifies the grammatical class of a word. The main 'parts of speech' recognized by most school grammars derive from the work of the ancient Greek and Roman grammarians, primarily the noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction and interjection, with article, participle, and others often added. Because of the inexplicitness with which these terms were traditionally defined and the restricted nature of their definitions, it has become preferable to use such terms as word-class or form-class, where the grouping is based on formal criteria of a more universally applicable kind. [Crystal 1997: 280]
PartOfSpeechProperty Delete Definition value PartOfSpeechProperty is the class of all kind of parts of speech.
PastPerfectTense New Definition value A tense in which the event that the speaker is referring to precedes the time of the state of affairs denoted by the sentence. Also referred to as 'past in past' form. Past perfect can also be used modally to represent situations as non-factual or counterfactual. [Aartes and McMahon 2006: 223-224, 271]
PastPerfectTense Delete Definition value Locates the situation in question in the future, prior to a reference time in the future. Also called PastInPast tense.
PastPerfectTense Update Definition value A tense in which the event that the speaker is referring to precedes the time of the state of affairs denoted by the sentence. Also referred to as 'past in past' form. Past perfect can also be used modally to represent situations as non-factual or counterfactual. [Michaelis 2006: 223; Depraetere and Reed 2006: 271]
PastTense New Definition value Past tense locates a situation in question prior to the present moment. Any further deductions about temporal location that are made on the basis of individual sentences in past tense are the result of factors other than simply the choice of tense. Past tense alone says nothing about whether the past situation occupies just a single point prior to the present moment or an extended time period prior to the present moment, or whether that situation continues to the present or into the future. [Comrie 1985: 41]
PastTense Delete Definition value Past tense locates a situation in question prior to the present moment. Any further deductions about temporal location that are made on the basis of individual sentences in past tense are the result of factors other than simply the choice of tense. Past tense alone says nothing about whether the past situation occupies just a single point prior to the present moment or an extended time period prior to the present moment, or whether that situation continues to the present or into the future. [Comrie 1985: 41]
patient New Definition value A semantic role, often unmarked, that typically does not act with volition, instigate an event, receive something, or experience a sensory impression. A prototypical patient undergoes a physical, visible change in state. Often the subject of a intransitive verb or the logical complement of a transitive verb. [Payne 1997: 50-51; Pei & Gaynor 1980: 162]
PaucalNumber New Definition value A category of number denoting the concept 'a few', more than two and usually less than seven, but the exact number varies widely according to context. Prototypically, it refers to a class of three to five individuals and is always restricted to humans. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 166; Corbett 2000: 23]
PerfectiveAspect Update Definition value A value of Aspect Property assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that which indicates that the event spoken about is to be viewed as a bounded whole, looked at from outside, without necessarily distinguishing any of its internal structure [Comrie 1976: 16ff]. Typically, for an aspect value to be labeled as Perfective, the aspectual meaning has to minimally express the perfective viewpoint, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings, or actionality distinctions. [Kibort 2008c: 7]
PersonalPronoun New Definition value A pronoun used to refer to the speaker, the person spoken to, and other persons and things whose referents are presumed to be clear from the context. While some personal pronouns in some languages occur in essentially the same sentence position as other nominal expressions, it is rather common for them to show distributional peculiarities. Personal pronouns may be clitics whose distribution may be consistently distinct from that of non-clitic nominals. It is also common for the equivalent of personal pronouns to be expressed by affixes on the verb. [Schachter 1985: 25-26]
PersonalPronoun Delete Definition value A personal pronoun is a pronoun that expresses a distinction of person deixis.
PersonProperty Update Definition value PersonProperty is the class of properties with a deictic dimension, interpreted relative to the speaker, encoding the participants in a speech situation. Usually a three-way contrast is found: firstPerson (speaker), secondPerson (addressee), and thirdPerson (neither speaker nor addressee). Other distinctions within this feature include: inclusive/exclusive and proximative/obviative. [Crystal 1997: 285-6]
PersonProperty Update Definition value PersonProperty is the class of properties with a deictic dimension, interpreted relative to the speaker, encoding the participants in a speech situation. Usually a three-way contrast is found: firstPerson (speaker), secondPerson (addressee), and thirdPerson (neither speaker nor addressee). Other distinctions within this feature include: inclusive/exclusive and proximative/obviative. [Crystal 1997: 285-286]
Phoneme Update Definition value A phoneme is a single speech-sound or a group of similar or related speech-sounds which function analogously in a given language and are usually represented in writing by the same letter. Bloomfield calls the phoneme "a minimum unit of distinctive sound-feature." It may be defined also as "a minimal bundle of relevant sound features." [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 167]
Phoneme New Definition value A phoneme is the underlying sound in a set of phonetically distinct sounds that native speakers of a language judge to be identical. Variants of the underlying sound are the product of systematic rules that modify the segment depending on the phonological context in which it occurs. [Kenstowicz 1994: 65-66]
Phoneme Delete Definition value A phoneme is a single speech-sound or a group of similar or related speech-sounds which function analogously in a given language and are usually represented in writing by the same letter. Bloomfield calls the phoneme "a minimum unit of distinctive sound-feature." It may be defined also as "a minimal bundle of relevant sound features." [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 167]
PhoneticProperty Update Definition value The class of properties used to describe speech sounds. The properties given here are more or less taken directly from Ladefoged's later works, in particular, the taxonomies of Ladefoged [Ladefoged 1997].
PhonologicalProperty New Definition value The class of linguistic properties that pertain to phonological units and that are used to describe the sound system of languages [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 174]. Phonological units can be analyzed into complexes of distinctive properties that cross-classify the entire inventory of possible speech sounds into a densely packed network [Kenstowicz 1994: 19].
PhonologicalProperty Delete Definition value The class of linguistic properties that pertain to phonological units.
PhonologicalSystem New Definition value A system of the speech sounds of a given language and their function within that language. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 178]
PhonologicalSystem New Definition value The set of consonant and vowel units that make up the words of a language or language variety, a phonological system is a list of contrastive sounds used in a language that are capable of distinguishing between two words with different meanings together with the ranges of variety each sound has and where those variants are found. [Ball and Mueller 2005: 120]
PhonologicalSystem Delete Definition value A system of the speech sounds of a given language and their function within that language. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 178]
PhysicalAbilitiveModality New Definition value PhysicalAbilitiveModality indicates that an agent has the physical capacity to perform some action. [Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 192; Palmer 2001: 77]
PhysicalAbilitiveModality Update Definition value PhysicalAbilitiveModality indicates that an agent has the physical capacity to perform some action. [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 192; Palmer 2001: 77]
PlainAdjective Update Definition value An adjective without any markings for comparative or superlative form, sometimes called "positive" from. It is that form of an adjective which merely expresses the presence of a quality or condition, without comparing or indicating its degree. [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 172, Hartmann and Stork 1972: 5]
PlainAdjective Update Definition value An adjective without any markings for comparative or superlative form, sometimes called "positive" form. It is that form of an adjective which merely expresses the presence of a quality or condition, without comparing or indicating its degree. [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 172, Hartmann and Stork 1972: 5]
PlusATR New Definition value PlusATR (al;so called Advanced Tongue Root) characterizes sounds made with the root of the tongue drawn forward and the larynx lowered so that the part of the vocal tract in the pharynx is considerably enlarged. [Ladefoged 2000: 211]
PlusATR Update Definition value PlusATR (also called Advanced Tongue Root) characterizes sounds made with the root of the tongue drawn forward and the larynx lowered so that the part of the vocal tract in the pharynx is considerably enlarged. [Ladefoged 2000: 211]
PlusATR Update Definition value MinusATR (minus Advanced Tongue Root) characterizes sounds made in which there is no advancement of the tongue root or lowering of the larynx. [Ladefoged 2000: 211]
PlusATR Update Definition value PlusATR (Advanced Tongue Root) characterizes sounds made with the root of the tongue drawn forward and the larynx lowered so that the part of the vocal tract in the pharynx is considerably enlarged. [Ladefoged 2000: 211]
PlusATR Delete Definition value Characterizing sounds made with advanced tongue root.
PlusNasal New Definition value Characterizing sounds in which the palatorpharyngeal and palatoglossus muscles lower the velum, allowing air to go out through the nose. [Kenstowicz 1994: 143; Ladefoged 2000: 274]
PlusNasal Delete Definition value Characterizing sounds produced with air escaping through the nose.
PolarityProperty New Definition value The property concerned with encoding the system of positive/negative contrastivity found in a language. The distinction between 'positive' and 'negative polarity' may be expressed syntactically, morphologically or lexically. [Crystal 1997: 297]
PolarityProperty Delete Definition value PolarityProperty is the class of properties that concern the grammatical encoding of negation. As a morphosyntactic property, generally only Negative is marked, i.e. associated with a linguistic expression.
PossibilityModality Update Definition value PossibilityModality indicates that the designated state of affairs is possible [Palmer 2001: 89-90], either directly, or because an agent has the ability or permission to carry it out [Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 177].
PossibilityModality Update Definition value PossibilityModality indicates that the designated state of affairs is possible [Palmer 2001: 89-90], either directly, or because an agent has the ability or permission to carry it out [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 177].
PostHodiernalFutureTense Update Definition value PostHodiernalFutureTense locates the situation in question after the span that is culturally defined as 'today' [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 247].
Predicative Update Concept label Complement
Predicative New Definition value In traditional grammar called a complement, a predicative gives a description of the subject or object via the verb, while the verb itself expresses no adequate thought without being complemented by this addition. Most typically this is an adjective phrase. One way in which predicatives differ from objects in English is in their nonacceptance of clefting (e.g. *It was an athlete that he remained) [Asher 1994: #; Jespersen 2006: 89; Huddleston & Pullam 2002: 251]
Predicative Update Definition value In traditional grammar called a complement, a predicative gives a description of the subject or object via the verb, while the verb itself expresses no adequate thought without being complemented by this addition. Most typically this is an adjective phrase. One way in which predicatives differ from objects in English is in their nonacceptance of clefting (e.g. *It was an athlete that he remained) [Asher 1994: 4881; Jespersen 2006: 89; Huddleston & Pullam 2002: 251]
Predicative Update Definition value A complement, also called a predicative, is an argument that gives a description of the subject or object via the verb, while the verb itself expresses no adequate thought without being complemented by this addition. Most typically this is an adjective phrase. One way in which complements differ from objects in English is in their nonacceptance of clefting (e.g. *It was an athlete that he remained). [Asher 1994: 4881; Jespersen 2006: 89; Huddleston & Pullam 2002: 251]
Prefix New Definition value An affix which is added to the front of a root or stem. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 182]
PreHodiernalPastTense Update Definition value PreHodiernalPastTense locates the situation in question before that of a contrasting HodiernalPastTense. This category must be defined relative to a HodiernalPastTense. [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 98]
Proadjective Update Definition value A Proadjective is a proForm that substitutes for an adjective or adjective phrase. [Crystal 1997: 310]
Proadjective Update Definition value A Proadjective is a ProForm that substitutes for an adjective or adjective phrase. [Crystal 1997: 310]
Proadverb Update Definition value A Proadverb is a Proform that substitutes for an adverb or other expression having an adverbial function.[Crystal 1997: 310]
Proadverb Update Definition value A Proadverb is a Proform that substitutes for an adverb or other expression having an adverbial function. [Crystal 1997: 310]
Process New Definition value The class of things that happen and have temporal parts or stages. Examples include extended events like a football match or a race, actions like pursuing and reading, and biological processes. The formal definition is: anything that occurs in time but is not an object. Note that a process may have participants 'inside' it which are objects, such as the players in a football match. In a 4D ontology, a process is something whose spatiotemporal extent is thought of as dividing into temporal stages roughly perpendicular to the time-axis. [SUMO 2010]
Process Delete Definition value Any entity that is relatively time unstable and has other processes as parts. See SUMO for a detailed explanation.
Processive Update Definition value A derivational morpheme that derives transitives from other transitives or intransitive verb.
ProgressiveAspect Update Definition value A value of Aspect Property (also called Nonstative aspect) assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that which indicates that the situation spoken about has internal temporal structure, it cannot be regarded as habitual, and reference is made to this situation in progress. Hence, progressiveness can be defined as the combination of progressive meaning with nonstative meaning, and it can be regarded as a sub-type of continuousness (which, in turn, is a sub-type of imperfectivity). Since languages have different criteria for classifying predicates as stative or not, they may have different rules for determining when explicitly progressive forms can be used. Typically, for an aspect value to be labelled as Progressive, the aspectual meaning has to minimally express progressiveness, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings, or actionality distinctions. [Kibort 2008c: 8]
ProhibitiveMood New Definition value Prohibitive mood is a directive mood that signals a prohibition. It is distinguished by the use of a negated imperative sentence that employs a negative marker distinct from that used in declarative sentences, or a verb form different from that of the imperative. [SIL 2004]
ProhibitiveMood Delete Definition value Used to issue warnings.
ProhibitiveMood Update Definition value Prohibitive mood is a directive mood that signals a prohibition. It is distinguished by the use of a negated imperative sentence that employs a negative marker distinct from that used in declarative sentences, or a verb form different from that of the imperative. [SIL International 2004]
Protruded New Definition value An articulatory characteristic resulting from protrusion of the lips, often resulting in the appearance of a small labial cavity forward of the teeth and bounded at the front by the inside surfaces of the lips. Often occurring with lip rounding, the protruded quality modifies the basic articulation by extending the length of the vocal tract and altering its cross-section, resulting in lowered frequencies on all formants. Back rounded vowels are commonly more protruded than front rounded vowels. [Brosnahan and Malberg 1976: 43, 67; Clark, Yallop and Fletcher 2007: 26, 64]
Protruded Delete Definition value [Need comment]
Protruded Update Definition value An articulatory characteristic resulting from protrusion of the lips, often resulting in the appearance of a small labial cavity forward of the teeth and bounded at the front by the inside surfaces of the lips. Often occurring with lip rounding, the protruded quality modifies the basic articulation by extending the length of the vocal tract and altering its cross-section, resulting in lowered frequencies on all formants. Back rounded vowels are commonly more protruded than front rounded vowels. [Brosnahan and Malmberg 1976: 43, 67; Clark, Yallop and Fletcher 2007: 26, 64]
Proverb New Definition value A proverb (frequently written "pro-verb") is a ProForm that substitutes for a verb or verb phrase. [Schachter 1985: 34]
Proverb Delete Definition value no documentation yet
Proverb Update Concept label ProVerb
PulmonicProperty Update Definition value Pulmonic refers to an air-stream mechanism wherein the air is generated in the lungs and pushed out under the control of the respiratory muscels. [Ladefoged 2000: 122]
PulmonicProperty Update Definition value Pulmonic refers to an air-stream mechanism wherein the air is generated in the lungs and pushed out under the control of the respiratory muscles. [Ladefoged 2000: 122]
QuantificationalAspect New Definition value Quantificational aspect refers to the aspectual distinctions which can be expressed by predication operators [Hangeveld: 12]
QuantificationalAspect Update Definition value A speaker may report an event as occurring once only (semelfactive) or several times (iterative); he may view it as a specific event or as part of a general habit of carrying out similar events; he may also differentiate between different degrees of frequency with which the event occurs. The markers that a given language provides for one or more of these meaning distinctions can be grouped under a subcategory called “quantificational aspect”, as all of them refer to the quantitative aspect of the event concerned. [Bhat 1999: 53]
Quantifier Update Concept parent PartOfSpeechProperty
RealisMood Update Definition value Realis modality is a modality that connotes the factuality of a proposition. In its broad usage, the term realis is approximately equivalent in meaning to the term indicative, which in turn is used, narrowly, as a synonym to declarative. [SIL International 2004]
RecentTense Delete Concept
ReferentialVoice New Definition value ReferentialVoice entails assignment of the absolutive to certain kinds of arguments other than logical subjects (agents) and objects (patients), targeting semantic roles such as dative, benefactive, malefactive and possessor. [Klaiman 1991: 239]
ReflexivePronoun New Definition value A pronoun which is interpreted as coreferential with another nominal, usually the subject, of the sentence or clause in which it occurs. [Schachter 1985: 27]
ReflexivePronoun Delete Definition value A reflexive pronoun is a pronoun that has coreference with the subject.
RelativePresentTense New Definition value A tense that expresses that a situation is simultaneous with the time of some other post-present situation. [Hollebrandse, Holt and Vet, 2005: 30]
RelativePresentTense Delete Definition value RelativePresentTense locates the situation in question simultaneously with some contextually determined temporal reference point.
RelativePresentTense Update Definition value A tense that expresses that a situation is simultaneous with the time of some other post-present situation. [Hollebrandse, Holt and Vet 2005: 30]
Repetitive Update Definition value A derivational unit that derives transitives from other transitive or intransitive stems adding the meaning of repetition to the resulting form. [concept mentioned in Kibort 2008c: 9]
Retracted New Definition value A term used in phonetics to refer to the backwards movement of an articulator, especially the back of the tongue towards the velum. Retracted sounds are heard in velarization, or the centralization of front vowels. The tongue root may also be retracted. [Crystal 2008: 398]
Retracted Delete Definition value Characterizing sounds involving compression without necessarily drawing the corners of the lips forward.
RomanNumeralGender New Definition value A convention for labeling gender values. Roman numerals are often used for languages for which there is a descriptive tradition involving use of the term 'noun class' instead of 'gender', in particular in languages of the Caucasus or Bantu languages, and are particularly useful where the number of genders is large.If the 'noun classes' are involved in agreement systems, they are gender systems. Roman numerals may also be used in instances where another label is possible. In one language the gender to which nouns with male rational denotation are assigned might be called 'masculine', whereas in another language nouns with a similar denotation may be assigned to a gender with an arbitrary Roman numerical label such as 'I'. (Surrey Morphology Group, http://www.grammaticalfeatures.net/features/gender.html)
RomanNumeralGender Update Definition value A convention for labeling gender values. Roman numerals are often used for languages for which there is a descriptive tradition involving use of the term 'noun class' instead of 'gender', in particular in languages of the Caucasus or Bantu languages, and are particularly useful where the number of genders is large.If the 'noun classes' are involved in agreement systems, they are gender systems. Roman numerals may also be used in instances where another label is possible. In one language the gender to which nouns with male rational denotation are assigned might be called 'masculine', whereas in another language nouns with a similar denotation may be assigned to a gender with an arbitrary Roman numerical label such as 'I'. [Surrey Morphology Group 2010l]
RomanNumeralGender Update Definition value A convention for labeling gender values. Roman numerals are often used for languages for which there is a descriptive tradition involving use of the term 'noun class' instead of 'gender', in particular in languages of the Caucasus or Bantu languages, and are particularly useful where the number of genders is large.If the 'noun classes' are involved in agreement systems, they are gender systems. Roman numerals may also be used in instances where another label is possible. In one language the gender to which nouns with male rational denotation are assigned might be called 'masculine', whereas in another language nouns with a similar denotation may be assigned to a gender with an arbitrary Roman numerical label such as 'I'. [Kibort and Corbett 2008]
RomanNumeralGender Update Definition value A convention for labeling gender values. Roman numerals are often used for languages for which there is a descriptive tradition involving use of the term 'noun class' instead of 'gender', in particular in languages of the Caucasus or Bantu languages, and are particularly useful where the number of genders is large.If the 'noun classes' are involved in agreement systems, they are gender systems. Roman numerals may also be used in instances where another label is possible. In one language the gender to which nouns with male rational denotation are assigned might be called 'masculine', whereas in another language nouns with a similar denotation may be assigned to a gender with an arbitrary Roman numerical label such as 'I'. [Kibort and Corbett 2008a]
Root New Definition value The base form of a word which cannot be further analyzed without total loss of identity. Roots may be free or bound morphemes and can be classified as simple (i.e. compositionally unanalyzable in terms of morphemes) or complex/compound (i.e. certain combinations of simple root forms), though for the latter, the term 'stem' is often used. From a semantic point of view, the root generally carried the main component of meaning in a word. [Crystal 1997: 336]
Root Delete Definition value Root is the class of morphologically simple units that are not further analyzable into meaningful elements, being morphologically simple. Roots have a lexicalized meaning and designate the principle portion of meaning of the unit to which it belongs. They are the grammatical units to which derivational and inflectional material are added.
SecondLanguageOnlyVariety New Definition value SecondLanguageOnlyVariant is a language variant that has no mother tongue speakers. It is only spoken as a a second language. One example would be the case of Callawalla, which is only learned in adolescence. [Grimes 1992: 16]
SecondLanguageOnlyVariety Delete Definition value A class of language varieties with no native speakers, i.e., only spoken by those that learned the variety after childhood.
SecondLanguageOnlyVariety Update Definition value SecondLanguageOnlyVariant is a language variant that has no mother tongue speakers. It is only spoken as a a second language. One example would be the case of Callawalla (caw), which is only learned in adolescence. [Grimes 1992: 16]
SemanticAssignmentSystem Update Definition value For natural language understanding, the process of fine-grain semantic role assignment is one of the prominent steps, which provides semantic relations between constituents. The sense and sense relations between constituents provide the core meaning of a sentence. Abstract semantic roles include thematic roles, such as agent, theme, and instrument, and secondary roles such as location, time, and manner. [Chen and You 2004: 1]
SemanticProperty Update Definition value The class of linguistic properties that pertain to semantic units. The units that underlie our intuitions about literal meaning and are associated with the grammatical structure of a language. [Frawley 1953: p. 12]
SemanticProperty Update Definition value The class of linguistic properties that pertain to semantic units. The units that underlie our intuitions about literal meaning and are associated with the grammatical structure of a language. [Frawley 1953: 12]
SemanticProperty Update Definition value The class of linguistic properties that pertain to semantic units. The units that underlie our intuitions about literal meaning and are associated with the grammatical structure of a language. [Frawley 1953: 12]
SemanticProperty New Definition value In - componential analysis, one of several features which together can be said to make up the semantic meaning of a word or utterance. Thus /raining/ could be analyzed into the component features 'precipitation', 'liquid' (not 'solid' as in /hail/), 'average' (not 'light' as /drizzling/ or 'heavy' as /pouring/), etc. distinguisher. Alternative terms: semantic feature, semantic property, semantic marker. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: p. 203]
SemanticProperty Update Definition value In componential analysis, one of several features which together can be said to make up the semantic meaning of a word or utterance. Thus /raining/ could be analyzed into the component features 'precipitation', 'liquid' (not 'solid' as in /hail/), 'average' (not 'light' as /drizzling/ or 'heavy' as /pouring/), etc. distinguisher. Alternative terms: semantic feature, semantic property, semantic marker. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: p. 203]
SemanticProperty Update Definition value In componential analysis, one of several features which together can be said to make up the semantic meaning of a word or utterance. Thus /raining/ could be analyzed into the component features 'precipitation', 'liquid' (not 'solid' as in /hail/), 'average' (not 'light' as /drizzling/ or 'heavy' as /pouring/), etc. distinguisher. Alternative terms: semantic feature, semantic property, semantic marker. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 203]
SemanticProperty Update Definition value In componential analysis, one of several features which together can be said to make up the semantic meaning of a word or utterance. Thus 'raining' could be analyzed into the component features 'precipitation', 'liquid' (not 'solid' as in 'hail'), 'average' (not 'light' as /drizzling/ or 'heavy' as /pouring/), etc. Alternative terms: semantic feature, semantic [component], semantic marker. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 203]
SemanticProperty Update Definition value In componential analysis, one of several features which together can be said to make up the semantic meaning of a word or utterance. Thus 'raining' could be analyzed into the component features 'precipitation', 'liquid' (not 'solid' as in 'hail'), 'average' (not 'light' as /drizzling/ or 'heavy' as /pouring/), etc. [...] Alternative terms: semantic feature, semantic [component], semantic marker. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 203]
SeveralNumber Delete Concept
SignedLanguage New Definition value SignLanguages are systems of gesture used instead of speech as a mode of communication on all occasions of interaction. [Frawley 2003: Vol 4. 54]
SignedLanguage New Definition value SignLanguage or SignSystem is referring to the system of manual communication used by certain groups as an alternative to oral communication. [Crystal 1997: 350]
SignedLanguage Delete Definition value SignedLanguage is the class of linguistic systems which instances are expressed using a system of (primarily manual) gestures.
SignedLanguage Delete Definition value SignLanguages are systems of gesture used instead of speech as a mode of communication on all occasions of interaction. [Frawley 2003: Vol 4. 54]
SignedLinguisticExpression New Definition value “In linguistic discussion, the most widespread sense is when linguistic expressions (words, sentences, etc.) are said to be 'signs' of the entities, state of affairs, etc., which they stand for (or, often, of the concepts involved). This relationship between sign and thing, or sign and concept, is traditionally known as signification. The term linguistic sign is often used when a distinction is needed with other categories of sign (e.g. visual, tactile)." [Crystal 2003: 417-8]
SignedLinguisticExpression Delete Definition value “In linguistic discussion, the most widespread sense is when linguistic expressions (words, sentences, etc.) are said to be 'signs' of the entities, state of affairs, etc., which they stand for (or, often, of the concepts involved). This relationship between sign and thing, or sign and concept, is traditionally known as signification. The term linguistic sign is often used when a distinction is needed with other categories of sign (e.g. visual, tactile)." [Crystal 2003: 417-8]
SimpleFutureTense Update Definition value The posterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modeling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about.
SimpleFutureTense Update Definition value The posterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modeling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. [Reichenbach 1947: p. 289]
SimpleFutureTense Update Definition value The posterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modeling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. [Reichenbach 1947: p. 288-9]
SimpleFutureTense Update Definition value The posterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modeling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. [Reichenbach 1947: 288-9]
SimpleFutureTense Update Definition value The posterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modeling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. [Reichenbach 1947: 288-289]
SimpleFutureTense Update Definition value A value of Tense Property assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as posterior to the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'future', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'posterior'. The posterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modeling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. [Reichenbach 1947: 288-289]
SimpleFutureTense Update Definition value Simple Future Tense consists of two elements - Future Tense and the context temporal relation designated as simple. Future tense assigns a value to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as posterior to the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'future', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'posterior'. The posterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modeling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. [Reichenbach 1947: 288-289]
SimpleFutureTense Update Definition value Simple Future Tense consists of two elements - future tense and the context temporal relation designated as simple. Future tense assigns a value to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as posterior to the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'future', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'posterior'. The posterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modeling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. [Reichenbach 1947: 288-289]
SimpleFutureTense Update Definition value Simple Future Tense consists of two elements: future tense and the context temporal relation designated as simple. Future tense assigns a value to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as posterior to the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'future', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'posterior'. The posterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modeling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. [Reichenbach 1947: 288-289]
SimpleFutureTense Update Definition value Simple future tense consists of two elements: future tense and the context temporal relation designated as simple. Future tense assigns a value to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as posterior to the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'future', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'posterior'. The posterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modeling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. [Reichenbach 1947: 288-289]
SimpleFutureTense Update Definition value Future tense assigns a value to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as posterior to the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'future', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'posterior'. The posterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modeling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. [Reichenbach 1947: 288-289]
SimpleFutureTense Update Definition value Future tense assigns a value to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as posterior to the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'future', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'posterior'. The posterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modeling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about [Reichenbach 1947: 288-289]. [Kibort 2008c: 5]
SimpleFutureTense Update Definition value Future tense assigns a value to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as posterior to the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'future', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'posterior'. The posterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modeling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. [Kibort 2008c: 5]
SimplePastTense Update Definition value The anterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modeling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: p. 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about [Reichenbach 1947: p. 289].
SimplePastTense Update Definition value The anterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modeling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: p. 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about [Reichenbach 1947: 289].
SimplePastTense Update Definition value Simple Past Tense consists of two elements - past tense and the context temporal relation designated as simple. Past tense assigns a value to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as anterior to the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'past', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'anterior'. The anterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modeling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: p. 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about [Reichenbach 1947: 289].
SimplePastTense Update Definition value Simple Past Tense consists of two elements: past tense and the context temporal relation designated as simple. Past tense assigns a value to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as anterior to the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'past', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'anterior'. The anterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modeling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: p. 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about [Reichenbach 1947: 289].
SimplePastTense Update Definition value Simple past tense consists of two elements: past tense and the context temporal relation designated as simple. Past tense assigns a value to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as anterior to the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'past', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'anterior'. The anterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modeling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: p. 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about [Reichenbach 1947: 289].
SimplePastTense Update Definition value Past tense assigns a value to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as anterior to the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'past', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'anterior'. The anterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modeling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: p. 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about [Reichenbach 1947: 289].
SimplePastTense Update Definition value Past tense assigns a value to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as anterior to the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'past', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'anterior'. The anterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modeling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: p. 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about [Reichenbach 1947: 289]. [Kibort 2008c: 4]
SimplePastTense Update Definition value Past tense assigns a value to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as anterior to the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'past', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'anterior'. The anterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modeling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about . [Kibort 2008c: 4]
SimplePresentTense Update Definition value The simultaneous temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modelling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about.
SimplePresentTense Update Definition value The simultaneous temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modelling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. [Reichenbach 1947: p. 289]
SimplePresentTense Update Definition value The simultaneous temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modelling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. [Reichenbach 1947: 289]
SimplePresentTense Update Definition value Simple Present Tense consists of two elements - present tense and the context temporal relation designated as simple. Present tense assigns a value to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as simultaneous to the deictic centre of the utterance. The simultaneous temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modelling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. [Reichenbach 1947: 289]
SimplePresentTense Update Definition value Simple present tense consists of two elements: present tense and the context temporal relation designated as simple. Present tense assigns a value to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as simultaneous to the deictic centre of the utterance. The simultaneous temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modelling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. [Reichenbach 1947: 289]
SimplePresentTense Update Definition value Present tense assigns a value to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as simultaneous to the deictic centre of the utterance. The simultaneous temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modelling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. [Reichenbach 1947: 289]
SimplePresentTense Update Definition value Present tense assigns a value to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as simultaneous to the deictic centre of the utterance. The simultaneous temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modelling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about [Reichenbach 1947: 289]. [Kibort 2008c: 4-5]
SimplePresentTense Update Definition value Present tense assigns a value to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as simultaneous to the deictic centre of the utterance. The simultaneous temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modelling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. [Kibort 2008c: 4-5]
SimpleSpecification Update Definition value A SimpleSpecification is a kind of FeatureSpecification whose value must be a simple linguistic attribute [Maxwell, Simons and Hayashi 2000].
SimultaneousAspect Update Definition value A temporal relation in which the events or states of proposition(s) are communicated as occurring at the same time. [SIL International 2004]
SizeProperty Update Definition value SizeProperty is the class of properties that concern the grammatical encoding of relative size. Currently only Diminutive and Augmentative defined as possible properties. Typically, size is specified "derivationally" rather than by inflection. [Frawley 1953: 126]
SizeProperty New Definition value SizeProperty is a physical property with two values: large and small. Languages apparently do not encode a middle value of medium, at least not in the grammar. The marking of large size is traditionally called the augmentativem that for small size the diminutive. [Frawley 1992: 126]
SizeProperty Delete Definition value SizeProperty is the class of properties that concern the grammatical encoding of relative size. Currently only Diminutive and Augmentative defined as possible properties. Typically, size is specified "derivationally" rather than by inflection. [Frawley 1953: 126]
SmallPaucalNumber Delete Concept
SpokenLanguage New Definition value One of the modes of linguistic communication. As distinct from --> written language, it is characterized by repetition, hesitation forms, pauses, variations in articulation, lapses, as well as differences in vocabulary and grammar. The primary importance spoken language in the analysis, description and teaching of languages has been stressed frequently. Alternative terms: speech, conversation. [Hartman and Stork 1972: 217]
SpokenLanguage Update Definition value One of the modes of linguistic communication. As distinct from written language, it is characterized by repetition, hesitation forms, pauses, variations in articulation, lapses, as well as differences in vocabulary and grammar. The primary importance spoken language in the analysis, description and teaching of languages has been stressed frequently. Alternative terms: speech, conversation. [Hartman and Stork 1972: 217]
SpokenLanguage Update Definition value One of the modes of linguistic communication. As distinct from written language, it is characterized by repetition, hesitation forms, pauses, variations in articulation, lapses, as well as differences in vocabulary and grammar. The primary importance spoken language in the analysis, description and teaching of languages has been stressed frequently. Alternative terms: speech, conversation. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 217]
SpokenLanguage Delete Definition value SpokenLanguage is the class of linguistic systems whose instances are expressed in speech. For every spoken language, there exists a phonological system in which the language is expressed.
SpokenLinguisticExpression New Definition value An utterance which conveys a distinct meaning in a special context, e.g. the word "court" of the phrase "plead guilty" in legal terminology. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 81]
SpokenLinguisticExpression Delete Definition value An utterance which conveys a distinct meaning in a special context, e.g. the word "court" of the phrase "plead guilty" in legal terminology. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 81]
Stem Update Definition value Stem is the class of morphological units that are analyzable into a root and possibly one or more derivational units. Stems can occur alone and are the basis for adding inflectional units. [Lyons 1977: p. 513, 521-526]
Stem Update Definition value Stem is the class of morphological units that are analyzable into a root and possibly one or more derivational units. Stems can occur alone and are the basis for adding inflectional units. [Lyons 1977: 513, 521-526]
Stop New Definition value A term used in the phonetic classification of speech sounds on the basis of their manner of articulation. It refers to any sound which is produced by a complete closure in the vocal tract. [Crystal 2008: 453]
Stop Delete Definition value The property of sounds produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract.
StrictureProperty New Definition value A general term used in Phonetics to refer to an articulation which restricts the airstream to some degree, ranging from a complete clousure to a slight narrowing. [Crystal 2008: 456]
StrictureProperty Delete Definition value Property of sounds produced by stricture of the vocal tract.
StrictureProperty Update Definition value A general term used in Phonetics to refer to an articulation which restricts the airstream to some degree, ranging from a complete closure to a slight narrowing. [Crystal 2008: 456]
StructuralDescription New Definition value A term used in (esp. classical) transformational grammar to refer to an analysis of a terminal string in terms of a labeled bracketing. In transformational analysis, the SD identifies the input to a transformational rule: it specifies which phrase-markers are to be affected by the rule. i.e. which will 'satisfy' or 'meet' the conditions of the rule. The terms structural analysis and structure index are also used. [Crystal 2008: 458]
StructuralDescription Delete Definition value This is a data structure commonly associated with morphosyntactic analysis. It is usually represented graphically as a tree.
SubablativeCase Update Definition value SubablativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from under which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from under'. See also [Blake 1994: 155]
SubablativeCase Update Definition value SubablativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from under which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from under'.
SubablativeCase Update Definition value SubablativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from under which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from under'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SubablativeCase, namely -L´aš [Kibrik 1998: 470].
SuballativeCase Update Definition value SuballativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the region that is under the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards the region that is under'. See also [Blake 1994: 155]
SuballativeCase Update Definition value SuballativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the region that is under the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards the region that is under'.
SuballativeCase Update Definition value SuballativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the region that is under the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards the region that is under'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SuballativeCase, namely -L´aši [Kibrik 1998: 470].
SubessiveCase Update Definition value SubessiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location under which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'under' or 'beneath'. See also [Blake 1994: 155, Amalchukov and Spencer 2009: 179, 617]
SubessiveCase Update Definition value SubessiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location under which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'under' or 'beneath'.
SubessiveCase Update Definition value SubessiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location under which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'under' or 'beneath'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SubessiveCase, namely -L´ [Kibrik 1998: 470].
SubjunctiveMood New Definition value Subjunctive mood is a mood that typically signals irrealis meanings, such as potentiality, uncertainty, prediction, obligation, and desire. It most typically occurs in a subordinate clause, but may occur outside of one. [Nida 1949: 169; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 205; Bybee 1980: 338; Crystal 1980: 338; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 224; Lyons 1977b:817, 848; Mish 1991: 1174]
SubjunctiveMood Delete Definition value SubjunctiveMood indicates that the expression is not believed to be true.
SubjunctiveMood New Definition value SubjunctiveMood is used to express '"states of affairs" whose occurrence could easily be denied or affirmed, but instead is left unasserted.' [Lavandera 1983: 211]
SubjunctiveMood Delete Definition value Subjunctive mood is a mood that typically signals irrealis meanings, such as potentiality, uncertainty, prediction, obligation, and desire. It most typically occurs in a subordinate clause, but may occur outside of one. [Nida 1949: 169; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 205; Bybee 1980: 338; Crystal 1980: 338; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 224; Lyons 1977b:817, 848; Mish 1991: 1174]
SublativeCase Update Definition value SublativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location under which another referent is moving toward. It has the meaning 'towards the underneath of'. Sublative : In certain languages (notably, languages of the Finno-Urgic family), a declensional case having the same denotation as in English the use of the contruction "from below" before a substantive. [Pei and Gaynor 1980: p. 203-4]
SublativeCase Update Concept parent Approximant
SublativeCase Update Definition value SublativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location under which another referent is moving toward. It has the meaning 'towards the underneath of'.
SublativeCase New Definition value Sublative : In certain languages (notably, languages of the Finno-Urgic family), a declensional case having the same denotation as in English the use of the contruction "from below" before a substantive. [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 203-4]
SublativeCase Delete Definition value SublativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location under which another referent is moving toward. It has the meaning 'towards the underneath of'.
SublativeCase Update Definition value In certain languages (notably, languages of the Finno-Urgic family), a declensional case having the same denotation as in English the use of the contruction "from below" before a substantive. [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 203-204]
SublativeCase Update Concept parent CaseProperty
SublativeCase Update Definition value In certain languages (notably, languages of the Finno-Urgic family), a declensional case having the same denotation as in English the use of the contruction "from below" before a substantive. [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 203-204] Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SublativeCase, namely -L´ak [Kibrik 1998: 470].
SubordinateClause Update Definition value SubordinateClause is the class of clauses that cannot stand on their own as sentences. A matrix clause combined with a subordinate clause form a main clause. In the sentence 'John thinks that Mary is sick', 'Mary is sick' is the subordinate clause. Subordinate Clause: A clause which does not constitute a complete sentence in itself, but must be connected with or attached to an independent clause. [Pei and Gaynor 1980: p. 206]
SubordinateClause New Definition value A clause which does not constitute a complete sentence in itself, but must be connected with or attached to an independent clause. [Pei and Gaynor 1980: p. 206]
SubordinateClause Update Definition value A clause which does not constitute a complete sentence in itself, but must be connected with or attached to an independent clause. [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 206]
SubordinateClause Delete Definition value SubordinateClause is the class of clauses that cannot stand on their own as sentences. A matrix clause combined with a subordinate clause form a main clause. In the sentence 'John thinks that Mary is sick', 'Mary is sick' is the subordinate clause. Subordinate Clause: A clause which does not constitute a complete sentence in itself, but must be connected with or attached to an independent clause. [Pei and Gaynor 1980: p. 206]
SubterminativeCase Update Definition value SubterminativeCase expresses the notion of something moving into the region under the referent of the noun it marks, but not through that region. It has the meaning 'into the region under'. [Michaelis 1998: xv]
SubterminativeCase Update Definition value SubterminativeCase expresses the notion of something moving into the region under the referent of the noun it marks, but not through that region. It has the meaning 'into the region under'.
SubterminativeCase Update Definition value SubterminativeCase expresses the notion of something moving into the region under the referent of the noun it marks, but not through that region. It has the meaning 'into the region under'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SubterminativeCase, namely -L´akana [Kibrik 1998: 470].
SubtranslativeCase Update Definition value SubtranslativeCase expresses the notion of something moving along a trajectory underneath the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'along the region underneath'. Unfortunate name clash with 'Superlative' as a feature of adjectives. See also [Blake 1994: 155, Amalchukov and Spencer 2009: 179, 617]
SubtranslativeCase Update Definition value SubtranslativeCase expresses the notion of something moving along a trajectory underneath the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'along the region underneath'. Unfortunate name clash with 'Superlative' as a feature of adjectives.
SubtranslativeCase Update Definition value SubtranslativeCase expresses the notion of something moving along a trajectory underneath the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'along the region underneath'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SubtranslativeCase, namely -L´aXut [Kibrik 1998: 470].
Suffix Update Definition value An affix, consisting of a letter, syllable, or syllables, that follows a stem or word, modifying its meaning. Suffixes may be inflectional or derivational. [Crystal 1987: 431; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 225; Pei and Gaynor 1980: 207]
SuperablativeCase Update Definition value Superablative expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from over which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from over'. See also [Blake 1994: 155]
SuperablativeCase Update Definition value Superablative expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from over which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from over'.
SuperablativeCase Update Definition value Superablative expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is at the location from over which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from over'.
SuperablativeCase Update Definition value Superablative expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is at the location from over which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from over'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SuperablativeCase, namely -t̄iš. He gives the example 'aInš-li-t̄-iš' ('aIns' = 'apple'). [Kibrik 1998: 470-471]
SuperablativeCase Update Definition value Superablative expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is at the location from over which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from over'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SuperablativeCase, namely -t:iš. He gives the example 'aInš-li-t:-iš' ('aIns' = 'apple'). [Kibrik 1998: 470-471]
SuperallativeCase Update Definition value SuperallativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the region that is above the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards the region that is over'. [Blake 1994: 155]
SuperallativeCase Update Definition value SuperallativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the region that is above the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards the region that is over'.
SuperallativeCase Update Definition value SuperallativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the region that is above the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards the region that is over'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SuperallativeCase, namely -t:iši [Kibrik 1998: 470].
SuperessiveCase Update Definition value SuperessiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location on which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'on' or 'upon'. [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 207] Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SuperessiveCase, namely -t. He gives the example 'aInš-li-t' ('aIns' = 'apple'). [Kibrik 1998: 470-471]
SuperlativeAdjective Update Definition value That form of an adjective that expresses that the thing to which it refers possesses a certain quality or attribute to a greater extent than to any other thing [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 60; Pei and Gaynor 1980: 207].
SuperlativeAdjective Update Definition value That form of an adjective that expresses that the thing to which it refers possesses a certain quality or attribute to a greater extent than any other thing [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 60; Pei and Gaynor 1980: 207].
SuperlativeCase Update Definition value SuperlativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location onto which another referent is moving. It has the meaning of 'onto'. Unfortunate name clash with 'Superlative' as a property of adjectives. See also [Amalchukov and Spencer 2009: 179]
SuperlativeCase Update Definition value SuperlativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location onto which another referent is moving. It has the meaning of 'onto'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SuperlativeCase, namely -t:ik. He gives the example 'aInš-li-t:-ik' ('aIns' = 'apple'). [Kibrik 1998: 470-471] Unfortunate name clash with 'Superlative' as a property of adjectives.
SuperterminativeCase Update Definition value SuperterminativeCase expresses the notion of something moving into the region over the referent of the noun it marks, but not through that region. It has the meaning 'into the region over'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SuperterminativeCase, namely -t:ikana [Kibrik 1998: 470].
SupertranslativeCase Update Definition value SupertranslativeCase expresses the notion of something moving along a trajectory above the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'along the region over'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SuperlativeCase, namely -t:iXut [Kibrik 1998: 470].
SupertranslativeCase Update Definition value SupertranslativeCase expresses the notion of something moving along a trajectory above the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'along the region over'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SupertranslativeCase, namely -t:iXut [Kibrik 1998: 470].
SupraLaryngealProperty New Definition value The supralaryngeal node dominates the activity of all of the articulators except stiffening and slacking of the vocal folds. For consonants it can be viewed as the default node which comes into play when the supranasal node below it is deactivated. In the case of sounds produced by an articulator dominated by this node, the only possible segments are those which are traditionally classified as [-consonantal]. It is not necessary to specify manner features for sounds dominated by the supralaryngeal node, because they are redundantly determined. [Keyser and Stevens 1994: 216]
SupraLaryngealProperty Delete Definition value Property of sounds characterized by focusing on the active articulator.
SyntacticUnit New Definition value SyntacticUnit (also called constituent) is a 'term in grammatical analysis for a linguistic unit which is a functional component of a larger construction. Based on a combination of intuitive and formal (e.g. distributional) criteria, a sentence can be analysed into a series of constituents, such as subject + predicate, or NP+VP, etc. [Crystal 2003: 99]
SyntacticUnit Delete Definition value SyntacticUnit is the class of grammatical units whose members make up the constituents of syntactic constructions. They are the product of syntactic analysis. Syntactic units participate in syntactic relations, e.g., constituency or syntactic function relations.
SyntacticWord Update Definition value SyntacticWord is the class of syntactic units occupying the lowest position in a syntactic construction. They are the largest units resistant to insertion of new constituents within their boundaries; or they are the smallest constituents that can be moved within a sentence without making the sentence ungrammatical. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 256; Crystal 1980: 168, 383, 384; Cruse 1986: 3536; Mish et al. 1990: 1358; Pike and Pike 1982: 462]
SyntacticWord Update Definition value SyntacticWord is the class of syntactic units occupying the lowest position in a syntactic construction. They are the largest units resistant to insertion of new constituents within their boundaries; or they are the smallest constituents that can be moved within a sentence without making the sentence ungrammatical. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 256; Crystal 1980: 168, 383, 384; Cruse 1986: 3536; Pike and Pike 1982: 462]
SyntacticWord Update Definition value SyntacticWord is the class of syntactic units occupying the lowest position in a syntactic construction. They are the largest units resistant to insertion of new constituents within their boundaries; or they are the smallest constituents that can be moved within a sentence without making the sentence ungrammatical. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 256; Crystal 1980: 168, 383, 384; Cruse 1986: 35-36; Pike and Pike 1982: 462]
SyntacticWord Update Definition value SyntacticWord is the class of syntactic units occupying the lowest position in a syntactic construction. They are the largest units resistant to insertion of new constituents within their boundaries; or they are the smallest constituents that can be moved within a sentence without making the sentence ungrammatical. [SIL International 2004]
SyntacticWord New Definition value It can be moved about in the sentence, or at least its position relative to other constituents can be altered by inserting new material. It cannot be interrupted or its parts reordered. [Cruse 2000: 87-88]
Tap New Definition value A Tap or a flap is caused by a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator is thrown against another. [Ladefoged 2000: 150]
Tap New Definition value A Tap 'is a sound in which a brief contact between the articulators is made by moving the active articulator directly towards the roof of the mouth.' A tap is 'usually coronal. ... Taps are most typically made by a direct movement of the tongue tip to a contact location in the dental or alveolar region.' [Ladefoged 1996: 231]
Tap Delete Definition value Also known as a flap, the property of sounds produced when one articulator is forced against another.
Tap Delete Definition value A Tap or a flap is caused by a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator is thrown against another. [Ladefoged 2000: 150]
Term New Definition value A vocabulary item which has a special meaning in a particular subject field, e.g. 'sound' or 'voice' in phonetics, or 'butterfly' in swimming. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 236]
Term New Definition value In general, a synonym for "word;" specifically, a word or wor-dgroup constituting a syntactical unit. [Pei and Gaynor 1969: 215]
Term Delete Definition value A specific string representing an entity within some scientific domain.
Term Delete Definition value In general, a synonym for "word;" specifically, a word or wor-dgroup constituting a syntactical unit. [Pei and Gaynor 1969: 215]
TerminativeCase Update Definition value Cases expressing spatial relations (also semantic) can be grouped into four broad directional classes: cases expressing location ('at'), goal ('to'), source ('from'), and path ('through, along'). The basic terms for these are: locative, allative, ablative, and perlative. Additionally, the label terminative is used for a movement that goes all the way to its endpoint, and orientative - for a movement that goes only in the direction of its goal. [Kibort 2008b]
Thing Update Definition value In Web Ontology Language, Thing is the superclass of all classes. The most basic concepts in a domain should correspond to classes that are the roots of various taxonomic trees. Every individual in the OWL world is a member of the class owl:Thing. Thus each user-defined class is implicitly a subclass of owl:Thing. Domain specific root classes are defined by simply declaring a named class. [Smith, Welty, and McGuinness 2004]
Thing Update Definition value In Web Ontology Language, Thing is the superclass of all classes. The most basic concepts in a domain should correspond to classes that are the roots of various taxonomic trees. Every individual in the OWL world is a member of the class owl:Thing. Thus each user-defined class is implicitly a subclass of owl:Thing. Domain specific root classes are defined by simply declaring a named class. [Smith, Welty and McGuinness 2004]
ThirdPersonObviative Update Definition value ThirdPersonObviative is a person property that refers to one or more non-participants that are in some way further removed from the speaker than other non-particpants. Contrasts with thirdPersonProximative. [Kibort 2008a]
ThirdPersonObviative Update Definition value ThirdPersonObviative is a person property that refers to one or more non-participants that are in some way further removed from the speaker than other non-particpants. Contrasts with ThirdPersonProximative. [Kibort 2008a]
ThirdPersonProximative Update Definition value Refers to one or more non-participants that are in some way distinct/closer to the speaker than other non-participants. Third person proximative contrasts with third person obviative. Often called 'Third Person Proximate' or '4th person'. [Kibort 2008a]
Toneme Update Definition value A stress or tonal element which in a tone language distinguishes two otherwise identical words or forms. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 238; Pei and Gaynor 1980: 218]
TrialNumber New Definition value The trial is for referring to three distinct real world entities. [Corbett 2000: 21]
TrialNumber Update Definition value Trial is a number property that quantifies the denotation of the nominal element so that it specifies that there are exactly three.
TrialNumber Delete Definition value Trial is a number property that quantifies the denotation of the nominal element so that it specifies that there are exactly three.
Trill New Definition value A term in the phonetic classification of consonant sounds on the basis of their manner of articulation: also known as trilled consonant, or a roll, 'trill' refers to any sound made by the rapid tapping of one organ of articulation against another. [Crystal 2008: 496]
Trill New Definition value A term in the phonetic classification of consonant sounds on the basis of their manner of articulation: also known as trilled consonant, or a roll, 'trill' refers to any sound made by the rapid tapping of one organ of articulation against another. [Crystal 2008: 496]
Trill Delete Definition value A term in the phonetic classification of consonant sounds on the basis of their manner of articulation: also known as trilled consonant, or a roll, 'trill' refers to any sound made by the rapid tapping of one organ of articulation against another. [Crystal 2008: 496]
Trill New Definition value The vibration of one speech organ against another, driven by the aerodynamic conditions. One of the soft moveable parts of the vocal tract is placed close enough to another surface, so that when a current of air of the right strength passes through the aperture created by this configuration, a repeating pattern of closing and opening of the flow channel occurs. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 217]
Trill Delete Definition value The property associated with sounds caused from vibrations of the active and passive articulators as a result of air being forced between them.
Trill Delete Definition value A term in the phonetic classification of consonant sounds on the basis of their manner of articulation: also known as trilled consonant, or a roll, 'trill' refers to any sound made by the rapid tapping of one organ of articulation against another. [Crystal 2008: 496]
TrillProperty Update Definition value A term in the phonetic classification of consonant sounds on the basis of their manner of articulation: also known as trilled consonant, or a roll, 'trill' refers to any sound made by the rapid tapping of one organ of articulation against another. [Crystal 2008: 496]
Unaspirated Update Definition value Unaspirated refers to the configuration of glottal opening, release at the oral stricture, and vocal fold vibration in which the glottal opening gesture begins at the moment that the oral closure is made, but the maximum width of the glottal opening is reached at about the mid-point of the oral closure duration and the vocal folds return to a voicing position at about the moment of release. This typically results in a weak sounding release which lacks the burst of air characteristic of aspirated phonemes. [Ladefoged & Maddieson 1996: 66-67]
Unaspirated Update Definition value Unaspirated refers to the configuration of glottal opening, release at the oral stricture, and vocal fold vibration in which the glottal opening gesture begins at the moment that the oral closure is made, but the maximum width of the glottal opening is reached at about the mid-point of the oral closure duration and the vocal folds return to a voicing position at about the moment of release. This typically results in a weak sounding release which lacks the burst of air characteristic of aspirated phonemes. [Ladefoged & Maddieson 1996: 66-70]
Unaspirated Update Definition value Unaspirated refers to the configuration of glottal opening, release at the oral stricture, and vocal fold vibration in which the glottal opening gesture begins at the moment that the oral closure is made, but the maximum width of the glottal opening is reached at about the mid-point of the oral closure duration and the vocal folds return to a voicing position at about the moment of release. This typically results in a weak sounding release which lacks the burst of air characteristic of aspirated phonemes. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 66-70]
VelaricProperty Update Definition value Velaric refers to an air-stream mechanism wherein the air is generated by a closure at the velar position, rather than an air-stream generated by the lungs. The back of the tongue is raised against the velum, and articulations are made farther forward by the lips or front parts of the tongue, drawing air into or pushing air out of the mouth. The clicks of some African languages are produced in this way. In English, they may be heard in the 'tut tut' sound. [Crystal 1985 :325-326; Hartman & Stork 1972: 8]
VelaricProperty Update Definition value Velaric refers to an air-stream mechanism wherein the air is generated by a closure at the velar position, rather than an air-stream generated by the lungs. The back of the tongue is raised against the velum, and articulations are made farther forward by the lips or front parts of the tongue, drawing air into or pushing air out of the mouth. The clicks of some African languages are produced in this way. In English, they may be heard in the 'tut tut' sound. [Crystal 1985: 325-326; Hartman and Stork 1972: 8]
VelaricProperty Update Definition value Velaric refers to an air-stream mechanism wherein the air is generated by a closure at the velar position, rather than an air-stream generated by the lungs. The back of the tongue is raised against the velum, and articulations are made farther forward by the lips or front parts of the tongue, drawing air into or pushing air out of the mouth. The clicks of some African languages are produced in this way. In English, they may be heard in the 'tut tut' sound. [Crystal 1985: 325-326; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 8]
VerbalAdjective Update Definition value An adjectival which is closely related in form and or meaning to a verb. For example, -ed and -ing forms in English which are used as adjectives, e.g., 'interested' and 'crying' in 'a crying child'. [Crystal 1985: 326; Hartman & Stork 1972: 249; Pei & Gaynor 1980: 227]
VerbalAdjective Update Definition value An adjectival which is closely related in form and or meaning to a verb. For example, -ed and -ing forms in English which are used as adjectives. [Crystal 1985: 326; Hartman and Stork 1972: 249; Pei and Gaynor 1980: 227]
VerbalAdjective Update Definition value An adjectival which is closely related in form and or meaning to a verb. For example, -ed and -ing forms in English which are used as adjectives. [Crystal 1985: 326; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 249; Pei and Gaynor 1980: 227]
VerbalParticle Update Definition value A verbal particle is a member of a closed class of particles which co-occur with some verbs to form phrasal verbs. In some languages, verbal particles are identical to certain adpositions. [Schachter 1985 45–46]
VerbalParticle Update Definition value A verbal particle is a member of a closed class of particles which co-occur with some verbs to form phrasal verbs. In some languages, verbal particles are identical to certain adpositions. [Schachter 1985: 45–46]
VerbalParticle New Definition value Verbal particles are a closed class of uninflected words that co-occur with certain verbs. In some cases the verbal particles may have clearly distinguishable locative or directional meanings. In some languages some or all of the verbal particles also occur as (and are historically derived from) adpositions. In other languages, however, for example Ga'anda, the verbal particles are entirely distinct from adpositions. [Schachter 1985: 45-46]
VerbalParticle Update Definition value A verbal particle is a member of a closed class of particles which co-occur with some verbs to form phrasal verbs. In some languages, verbal particles are identical to certain adpositions.
VerbalParticle Delete Definition value A verbal particle is a member of a closed class of particles which co-occur with some verbs to form phrasal verbs. In some languages, verbal particles are identical to certain adpositions.
VerbPhrase New Definition value In traditional grammar a group of words having the same syntactic function as a simple very in a sentence., e.g. "could have been seeing" in "I could have been seeing things,"or "rang up' in "He rang me up." Alternative terms include phrasal verb, verb cluster, verbal group, and verbal phrase. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 249]
VerbPhrase Delete Definition value VerbPhrase is the class of phrases that have verbs as heads. They can play the role of predicate in a main clause.
VerbPhrase Update Definition value In traditional grammar a group of words having the same syntactic function as a simple verb in a sentence., e.g. "could have been seeing" in "I could have been seeing things,"or "rang up' in "He rang me up." Alternative terms include phrasal verb, verb cluster, verbal group, and verbal phrase. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 249]
VerbPhrase New Definition value Syntactic category of generative transformational grammar which functions as the immediate constituent of the sentence and which must contain a verb. According to the valence of the verb, the number and kind of the obligatory complements may vary; in addition, any number of free complements are possible. The border between obligatory and free complementsis often difficult to draw. [Bussmann 1996: 513]
VerbPhrase Delete Definition value In traditional grammar a group of words having the same syntactic function as a simple verb in a sentence., e.g. "could have been seeing" in "I could have been seeing things,"or "rang up' in "He rang me up." Alternative terms include phrasal verb, verb cluster, verbal group, and verbal phrase. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 249]
VerbPhrase New Definition value A unit of sentence structure consisting of a verb and the other elements closely linked to it. Traditional grammarians divided a typical sentence into two parts: a subject and a predicate. In our modern elaboration of this, the syntactic category which acts as a subject is a noun phrase, while the category acting as the predicate is a verb phrase. A verb phrase always contains a verb, and it usually contains some other material closely linked to that verb. [Trask 1999: 335] According to the valence of the verb, the number and kind of the obligatory complements may vary; in addition, any number of free complements are possible. The border between obligatory and free complementsis often difficult to draw. [Bussmann 1996: 513]
VerbPhrase Delete Definition value Syntactic category of generative transformational grammar which functions as the immediate constituent of the sentence and which must contain a verb. According to the valence of the verb, the number and kind of the obligatory complements may vary; in addition, any number of free complements are possible. The border between obligatory and free complementsis often difficult to draw. [Bussmann 1996: 513]
Versive New Definition value Versive refers to an intransitive verb, usually derived from an adjective but occasionally from a noun or adverb, with the meaning 'to become X'. [Edmonson 1995: 378]
Versive Delete Definition value A derivational unit that derives intransitive stems from adjectives, with the meaning of becoming or taking on the quality of the adjective.
Voiced New Definition value A fundamental term used in the phonetic classification of speech sounds, referring to the auditory result of the vibration of the vocal cords. [Crystal 1985: 329]
Voiced Update Definition value A fundamental term used in the phonetic classification of speech sounds, referring to the auditory result of the vibration of the vocal cords. Sounds produced while the vocal cords are vibrating are voiced. [Crystal 1985: 329]
Voiceless New Definition value A fundamental term used in the phonetic classification of speech sounds, referring to the auditory result of the vibration of the vocal cords. Sounds produced while the vocal cords are not vibrating are voiceless. [Crystal 1985: 329]
VoiceProperty Update Definition value VoiceProperty is the class of properties that concern the grammatical encoding of the relationship between the verb and the nominals in a subject-predicate configuration. It selects a grammatically prominent syntactic constituent--subject--from the underlying semantic functions. In accusative language, the basic strategy is to select an agent as a subject [Shibatani 1988: 3]. It can be said that all voice systems mark the affectedness/nonaffectedness of sentential subjects [Klaiman 1988: 30].
VoicingProperty Update Definition value Refers to the vibratory activity of the vocal folds. Most languages have phonemic contrasts between voiced and voiceless sounds (regular vibration of the vocal folds versus no vibration of the vocal folds respectively). However, Ladefoged and Maddieson recognize five steps in the continuum of modes of vibration in the glottis, going from breathy voice - the most open setting of the vocal folds in which vibration will occur, passing through slack voice, modal voice, and stiff voice, ending with creaky voice - the most constricted setting in which vibration will occur. Each of these modes of voicing may or may not be phonemic in a given language. [Ladefoged & Maddieson 1996: 48-49]
VoicingProperty Update Definition value Refers to the vibratory activity of the vocal folds. Most languages have phonemic contrasts between voiced and voiceless sounds (regular vibration of the vocal folds versus no vibration of the vocal folds respectively). However, Ladefoged and Maddieson recognize five steps in the continuum of modes of vibration in the glottis, going from breathy voice - the most open setting of the vocal folds in which vibration will occur, passing through slack voice, modal voice, and stiff voice, ending with creaky voice - the most constricted setting in which vibration will occur. Each of these modes of voicing may or may not be phonemic in a given language. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 48-49]
Vowel New Definition value One of the two general categories used for the classification of speech sounds, the other being consonant. Phonetically, they are sounds articulated without a complete closure in the mouth that would produce a stop or a degree of narrowing that would create audible friction; the air escapes evenly over the center of the tongue. For oral vowels, air escapes solely through the mouth. If some air is simultaneously released through the nose, the vowel is nasal. The quality of the vowel sound is affected by the shape of the oral resonance chamber, chiefly influenced by the position of the lips and the position of the tongue. [Crystal 1985: 330; Hartman & Stork 1972: 253]
Vowel Update Definition value One of the two general categories used for the classification of speech sounds, the other being consonant. Phonetically, they are sounds articulated without a complete closure in the mouth that would produce a stop or a degree of narrowing that would create audible friction; the air escapes evenly over the center of the tongue. For oral vowels, air escapes solely through the mouth. If some air is simultaneously released through the nose, the vowel is nasal. The quality of the vowel sound is affected by the shape of the oral resonance chamber, chiefly influenced by the position of the lips and the position of the tongue. [Crystal 1985: 330; Hartman and Stork 1972: 253]
Vowel Update Definition value One of the two general categories used for the classification of speech sounds, the other being consonant. Phonetically, they are sounds articulated without a complete closure in the mouth that would produce a stop or a degree of narrowing that would create audible friction; the air escapes evenly over the center of the tongue. For oral vowels, air escapes solely through the mouth. If some air is simultaneously released through the nose, the vowel is nasal. The quality of the vowel sound is affected by the shape of the oral resonance chamber, chiefly influenced by the position of the lips and the position of the tongue. [Crystal 1985: 330; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 253]
WeakObligativeModality Update Definition value WeakObligativeModality indicates that an agent is under a moral obligation to perform the action expressed by the predicate [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 186-187].
WrittenLanguage New Definition value One of the means or modes of linguistic communication. As distinct from spoken language, it does not usually represent all features of speech such as stress and pitch, and lacks the redundancy and lapses of spoken conversation (written dialogue and reading aloud are more akin to written than to spoken language). Also reference orthography. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 258]
WrittenLanguage Delete Definition value WrittenLanguage is the class of linguistic systems whose instance are expressed using a written, time-stable form. For every written language, there exists an orthographic system in which the language is expressed.
WrittenLinguisticExpression Update Definition value A WrittenLinguisticExpression is the written physical form of language as distinct from either signed or spoken expressions. A written expression is the physical product of the writing process.