GOLD Concept Change Field Value
AbessiveCase Update Definition value AbessiveCase expresses the lack or absence of the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning of the English preposition 'without' [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 3, 35].
AbsolutiveAntipassiveVoice Update Definition value An Antipassive in which the P or logical object is suppressed or overtly absent. [Klaiman 1991: 232]
AbsolutiveCase Update Definition value Absolutive Case in ergative-absolutive languages marks referents that would generally be the subjects of intransitive verbs or the objects of transitive verbs in the translational equivalents of nominative-accusative languages [Anderson 1985: 181; Crystal 1985: 1; Andrews 1985: 138].
AbsolutiveCase Update Definition value AbsolutiveCase in ergative-absolutive languages marks referents that would generally be the subjects of intransitive verbs or the objects of transitive verbs in the translational equivalents of nominative-accusative languages [Anderson 1985: 181; Crystal 1985: 1; Andrews 1985: 138].
AccusativeCase Update Definition value AccusativeCase in nominative-accusative languages marks certain syntactic functions, usually direct objects [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 3, 156; Crystal 1980: 11, 246; Andrews 1985: 75; Anderson 1985: 181].
ActiveVoice Update Definition value Associated with transitivity, when the action is performed by an agent (subject) on another participant (object), or with intransitivity [McIntosh 1984: 108]. Refers to the category of underived verb forms associated with the basic diathesis: Diathesis=D0:(X=SUBabs/nom) (Y=DIROBacc) [Shibatani 1995: 7]
AdessiveCase Update Definition value AdessiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location near/at which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'at' or 'near' [Crystal 1997: 8].
Adjectival Update Definition value An adjectival, or 'adjective', is a part of speech whose members modify nouns. An adjectival specifies the attributes of a noun referent. Note: this is one case among many. Adjectivals are a class of modifiers. An adjectival may be inflected as comparitive or superlative [Crystal 1997: 8; Payne 1997: 63].
Adposition Update Definition value An adposition is a part of speech whose members are of a closed set and occur before or after a complement composed of a noun phrase, noun, pronoun, or clause that functions as a noun phrase and forms a single structure with the complement to express its grammatical and semantic relation to another unit within a clause [Comrie 1989: 91; Crystal 1997: 305; Payne 1997: 86].
Adverbial Update Definition value An adverbial, or 'adverb', narrowly defined, is a part of speech whose members modify verbs for such categories as time, manner, place, or direction. An adverbal, broadly defined, is a part of speech whose members modify any constituent class of words other than nouns, such as verbs, adjectives, adverbs, phrases, clauses, or sentences. Under this definition, the possible type of modification depends on the class of the constituent being modified [Crystal 1997: 11; Payne 1997: 69].
Affix New Definition value is a short morpheme with an abstract meaning which can only be used when added to a root morpheme. These are classified in three different ways, depending on their position with reference to the root: suffix, prefix and infix. [Haspelmath 2002, 265; Crystal 1980, 17]
Affix Update Definition value An affix is a short morpheme with an abstract meaning which can only be used when added to a root morpheme. These are classified in three different ways, depending on their position with reference to the root: suffix, prefix and infix. [Haspelmath 2002, 265; Crystal 1980, 17]
Affix Update Definition value An affix is a short morpheme with an abstract meaning which can only be used when added to a root morpheme. These are classified in three different ways, depending on their position with reference to the root: suffix, prefix and infix. [Haspelmath 2002: 265; Crystal 1980: 17]
Affix Update Definition value An affix is a morpheme with an abstract meaning which can only be used when added to a root morpheme. These are classified in four different ways, depending on their position with reference to the root: suffix, prefix, circumfix and infix. [Haspelmath 2002: 265; Crystal 1980: 17]
AgentDeletionPassiveVoice Update Definition value The object of the active retains its old case-marking in the passive, the subject of the active cannot appear in the passive clause, and the passive tends to be semantically active. [Givon 1988: 419]
AgentDeletionPassiveVoice Update Definition value The object of the active retains its old case-marking in the passive, the subject of the active cannot appear in the passive clause, and the passive tends to be semantically active [Givon 1988: 419].
AllativeCase Update Definition value AllativeCase expresses motion to or toward the referent of the noun it marks [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 6, 9, 216; Lyons 1968: 299; Crystal 1985: 1213].
Alveolar Update Definition value Characterizing sounds produced with the alveolar ridge as the passive articulator [Ladefoged 1997: 598].
AnimateGender Update Definition value A grammatical gender property assigned to a class of nouns with animate denotation. In a given language it may include larger or smaller numbers of nouns which do not meet this semantic criterion. The animate gender may occur in a two-gender system, with the other gender being labeled inanimate. However, the animate gender may also occur in larger inventories (i.e. greater than two values). Examples of these larger systems are found in Bantu languages (where nouns denoting humans are included in the animate gender) and in languages of Daghestan (where the animate gender is typically for non-human animates) [Corbett 1991: 20-32].
AnnotationProperty Update Concept parent
AnnotationProperty Update Concept parent
AnteriorProperty Update Definition value Properties characterized by focusing on the upper passive articulator on the roof of the mouth [Ladefoged 1997: 597].
AntiCausativeVoice Delete Definition value An intransitive verb is derived from a basically transitive one with the direct object of the transitive verb corresponding to the subject of the intransitive. [Siewierska 1988,267]@en
AntiCausativeVoice Update Definition value An intransitive verb is derived from a basically transitive one with the direct object of the transitive verb corresponding to the subject of the intransitive. [Siewierska 1988: 267]
AntiCausativeVoice Update Definition value An intransitive verb is derived from a basically transitive one with the direct object of the transitive verb corresponding to the subject of the intransitive [Siewierska 1988: 267].
AntiPassiveVoice Update Definition value Derives an intransitive verb from a transitive stem whereby the original agent (only) is cross-referrenced by the absolutive markers on the verb and the original patient, if it appears, is in an oblique phrase. [England 1983: 110]
Apical Update Definition value Characterizing sounds produced by the tip of the tongue [Ladefoged 1997: 596].
ApicalityProperty Update Definition value Properties characterized by focusing on the action of the lower, active articulator, i.e. which part of the tongue is used in articulation [Ladefoged 1997: 597].
Approximant New Definition value This term is used to classify sounds based on their manner of articulation. Sounds possessing this trait are those in which the involved articulators approach one another, but do not produce audible friction. [Crystal 1980, 30]
Approximant Delete Definition value [Need comment]
Approximant Update Definition value This term is used to classify sounds based on their manner of articulation. Sounds possessing this trait are those in which the involved articulators approach one another, but do not produce audible friction. [Crystal 1980: 30]
Approximant Update Definition value This term is used to classify sounds based on their manner of articulation. Sounds possessing this trait are those in which the involved articulators approach one another, but not close enough to produce audible friction. [Crystal 1980: 30]
Article Update Definition value An article is a member of a small class of determiners that identify a noun's definite or indefinite reference, and new or given status [Crystal 1997: 26].
ArticulatoryProperty Update Definition value The class of properties defining how sounds are produced in the mouth.
ArticulatoryProperty Update Definition value The class of properties defining how sounds are produced in the mouth. [Ladefoged 1996: 4]
ArticulatoryProperty Update Definition value The class of properties defining how sounds are produced in the mouth. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 4]
ArticulatoryProperty Update Definition value The class of properties defining how sounds are produced in the mouth. [Ladefoged & Maddieson 1996: 4]
AspectProperty Update Definition value The term 'aspect'; designates the perspective taken on the internal temporal organization of the event, and different values of the Aspect Feature distinguish different ways of viewing the internal temporal constituency of the same event [Comrie 1976: 3ff], after [Holt 1943: 6; Bybee 2003: 157]. The 'event' is understood here as a general term covering any situation type (a state, activity, accomplishment, achievement, etc.) as expressed by the verb phrase of the construction. Unlike Tense Feature, which expresses event-external time and is deictic, Aspect Feature is event-internal and non-deictic, as it is not concerned with relating the time of the event to any other time point. Aspect Property is assigned to clauses on the basis of semantics: an aspect value is selected for the clause from the range of aspect values available in the given language. Aspect Property is typically realised on the verb, but it may be found expressed multiply on different elements in the same clause. It may be found on more than one element of the verbal complex, or on verbs as well as certain adverbs in the same clause. In the given language, the values of the Aspect Property are assigned to the designated elements as a consequence of semantic choice, and all the available options of particular aspect values expressing particular aspect meanings can be described with an Aspect Assignment System for that language. Since no languages have been found for which aspect values are assigned by an Aspect Distribution System (i.e. contextually, through agreement or government), Aspect Feature is not a Morphosyntactic Property. Instead, it is a Morphosemantic Property only. NOTE: Although the semantic basis for the Aspect Property are the distinctions identified in the internal temporal constituency of an event, aspect meanings frequently combine with tense, modal or other meanings expressing actionality distinctions. Hence, markers expressing aspect values are frequently portmanteaux realising combined TAM values.
Aspirated New Definition value A sound is described as 'aspirated' when there is an audible release of breath accompanying its production. It commonly occurs with plosive consonants. [Crystal 1980, 34]
Aspirated Delete Definition value [Need comment]
Aspirated Update Definition value A sound is described as 'aspirated' when there is an audible release of breath accompanying its production. It commonly occurs with plosive consonants. [Crystal 1980: 34]
Aspirated Update Definition value A sound is described as 'aspirated' when it has a greater rate of airflow that occurs in modal voice for a period of time before or after a stricture. It often accompanies a consonant which precedes a vowel, the beginning of which is unvoiced. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 48]
Aspirated Update Definition value A sound is described as 'aspirated' when it has a greater rate of airflow that occurs in modal voice for a period of time before or after a stricture. It often accompanies a consonant which precedes a vowel, the beginning of which is unvoiced. [Ladefoged & Maddieson 1996: 48]
AssumptiveEvidentiality Update Definition value AssumptiveEvidentiality encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression through a possibly unsound inference procedure. That is, it is at least reasonable [Palmer 2001: 6-8].
AuditoryEvidentiality Update Definition value AuditoryEvidentiality encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression through direct auditory experience; they heard it. This does not include spoken reported accounts, but only direct sensory evidence, such as the situation of 'hearing a tree fall' [Palmer 2001: 38].
AugmentativeSize Update Definition value A special form of a noun that signals that the object being referred to is large relative to the usual size of such an object [Crystal 1980: 34].
Auxiliary New Definition value Auxiliary is a term used to describe verbs which are subordinate to the main lexical verb and make distinctions in voice, aspect, mood and so on. Marginal auxiliaries share some of these properties, but not all. [Crystal 1985, 28]
Auxiliary Update Definition value Auxiliary is a term used to describe verbs which are subordinate to the main lexical verb and make distinctions in voice, aspect, mood and so on. Marginal auxiliaries share some of these properties, but not all. [Crystal 1985: 28]
Auxiliary Update Definition value Auxiliary is a term used to describe verbs which are used in coordination with another verb to express mood, tense or aspect of the action denoted by the main verb. Marginal auxiliaries share some of these properties, but not all. [Crystal 1985: 28; Pei & Gaynor 1980: 23]
AversiveCase Update Definition value AversiveCase expresses fear or is literally translated as 'turning from' in some languages [Blake 2001: 156].
Back Delete Definition value Characterizing sounds produced with the tongue near the back of the mouth.
BenefactiveCase Update Definition value BenefactiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks receives the benefit of the situation expressed by the clause [Crystal 1980: 43].
Breathy New Definition value With regard to classifications of vocal qualities, the term 'breathy' refers to an effect produced by allowing a large amount of air to pass through the partially open glottis. Some speakers have this as a permanent characteristic of their speech patterns. [Crystal 1985, 38]
Breathy Delete Definition value [Need comment]
Breathy Update Definition value With regard to classifications of vocal qualities, this refers to an effect produced by allowing a large amount of air to pass through the partially open glottis. Some speakers have this as a permanent characteristic of their speech patterns. [Crystal 1985: 38]
BuccalProperty Update Definition value A subclass of place properties roughly referring to positions inside the mouth [Ladefoged 1997: 606].
CardinalNumeral Update Definition value A cardinal numeral is a numeral of the class whose members are considered basic in form, are used in counting, and are used in expressing how many objects are referred to [Crystal 1997: 52].
CaseProperty Update Definition value CaseProperty is the class of properties that concern the grammatical encoding of a noun's relationship (syntactic or semantic) to some other element in the sentence, such as a verb, noun, pronoun, or adposition [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 35; Crystal 1980: 53-54; Anderson 1985: 179-180; Andrews 1985: 7172; Kuno 1973: 45; Blake 2001].
Central Delete Definition value Characterizing sounds produced with the tongue near the center of the mouth (along the front-back dimension).
CentralEscape Delete Definition value Characterizing sounds produced with a release of air through the center of the mouth. (Note, [Ladefoged 1997] refers to this value as central.)
Circumfix New Concept label Circumfix
Circumfix New Definition value A discontinuous affix that occurs on both sides of the base. [Haspelmath 2002: 267]
Citation Update Concept parent
Citation Update Concept parent
Citation Update Concept parent
Citation New Definition value A term referring to information regarding a publication that allows another to locate and identify it. Typical details include the title, author's name, the journal title (for articles), publication date and page numbers used in research. [Smith 2010]
Citation Update Concept parent
Class Update Concept parent
Class New Definition value This term refers to a set of entities, be they words, morphemes or otherwise, which share certain formal or semantic properties. [Crystal 1980, 60]
Class Update Definition value This term refers to a set of entities, be they words, morphemes or otherwise, which share certain formal or semantic properties. [Crystal 1980: 60]
Clause Update Definition value A clause is a subdivision of a sentence containing a subject (argument) and predicate. It is possible to have a word that implies or refers to a predicate rather than one explicitly stated. [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 40]
Clause Update Definition value A clause is a subdivision of a sentence containing a subject (argument) and predicate. It is possible to have a word that implies or refers to a predicate rather than one explicitly stated. [Pei & Gaynor 1980: 40]
Clitic Update Definition value Clitic is the class of units which members exhibit syntactic characteristics of a lexical unit, but show evidence of being morphologically bound to another lexical unit, the host, by being unstressed or subject to word-level phonological rules [Crystal 1980: 64; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 38; Anderson 1985: 158; Klavans 1982: xi-xiv, 74-76, 83, 93-95, 100-101; Zwicky 1977: 5].
Close Update Concept label Close
Closed New Definition value In the classification of tongue movement when articulating vowel sounds, this refers to one produced with the tongue in the highest vertical position possible within the mouth without causing audible friction. [Crystal 1980, 64]
Closed Delete Definition value [Need comment]
Closed Update Definition value In the classification of tongue movement when articulating vowel sounds, this refers to one produced with the tongue in the highest vertical position possible within the mouth without causing audible friction. [Crystal 1980: 64]
CloseFutureTense Delete Definition value
CloseFutureTense Delete Definition value @en
CloseFutureTense New Definition value Also called ImmediateFutureTense, this grammatical class names an upcoming situation which is to take place shortly after the moment of utterance [Dahl 1985: 121; Comrie 1985: 94; Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 244-245].
ComitativeCase Update Definition value ComitativeCase expresses accompaniment. It carries the meaning 'with' or 'accompanied by' [Anderson 1985: 186; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 42; Dixon, R. 1972: 12].
CommissiveForce Update Definition value CommisiveForce indicates that the speaker promises or threatens to perform some action [Palmer 2001: 10, 72].
CommonNoun Update Definition value CommonNoun is one which refers to a class of objects, places, ideas, and so on. This is in contrast with ProperNoun. [Brown and Miller 1999: 424]
CommonNoun Update Definition value CommonNouns refer to a class of objects, places, ideas, and so on. This is in contrast with ProperNoun. [Brown and Miller 1999: 424]
ComparativeAdjective Update Definition value A term which is used to classify adjectives grammatically in a manner that specifies the extent or degree of their application. [Brown and Miller 1999: 424; Crystal 1980: 72-73]
ComparativeAdjective Update Definition value A term which is used to classify adjectives grammatically; they denote those that specify the extent or degree of their application. [Brown and Miller 1999: 424; Crystal 1980: 72-73]
Complementizer Update Definition value A complementizer is a connective which marks a complement clause [Crystal 1997: 75].
ComplementSubordinate Update Definition value A subordinate complement clause is an element which is dependent upon the main clause syntactically and as a whole completes the action of the verb. [Brown and Miller 1999: 424, Crystal 1980: 518]
ComplementSubordinate Update Definition value A subordinate complement clause is an element which is dependent upon the main clause syntactically and as a whole completes the action of the verb. [Brown and Miller 1999: 424; Crystal 1980: 518]
CompletiveAspect Delete Definition value CompletiveAspect
CompletiveAspect Update Definition value [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca: 1984]
CompletiveAspect Update Definition value [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1984]
CompletiveAspect Update Definition value A term used to denote verbal aspect that focuses on the conclusion of a process or action. [Brown and Miller 1999: 424; Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1984]
CompletiveAspect Update Definition value A term used to denote verbal aspect that focuses on the conclusion of a process or action. [Brown and Miller 1999: 424]
Compressed Delete Definition value One of the three types of Labial that can be associated with sounds involving lip compression involving the vertical movement of one lip towards the other. Such a property is associated with a normal bilabial stop.
ConditionalModality Delete Definition value ConditionalModality
ConditionalModality New Definition value When describing verbs, this is a term used to indicate expression of an unreal or unfulfilled condition. Some languages use grammatical markers or verb forms to separate real and unreal conditions. [Brown and Miller 1999: 425]
ConditionalPhysicalAbilitiveModality Update Definition value ConditionalPhysicalAbilitiveModality indicates ability of an agent to perform some action, requiring the presence of conditions external to the agent [Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 177; Palmer 2001: 76].
Conjunction New Definition value A term used in the grammatical description of words to delineate a word whose primary function is to connect words or other constructions. They can be divided into two types: co-ordinating and subordinating conjunctions. [Crystal 1985, 64]
Conjunction Delete Definition value no documentation yet
Conjunction Update Definition value A term used in the grammatical description of words to delineate a word whose primary function is to connect words or other constructions. They can be divided into two types: co-ordinating and subordinating conjunctions. [Crystal 1985: 64]
Connective Update Definition value Also known as a conjunction, a Connective is a class of parts of speech whose members syntactically link words or larger constituents, and expresses a semantic relationship between them. A conjunction is positionally fixed relative to one or more of the elements related by it, thus distinguishing it from constituents such as English conjunctive adverbs [Crystal 1997: 81].
Consonant New Definition value A type of sound segment defined by closure or constriction of the vocal tract, which produces an audible friction. The vocal tract constriction does not have to result in complete blocking; it can simply be a restriction of air flow. [Crystal 1985, 66]
Consonant Update Definition value A type of sound segment defined by closure or constriction of the vocal tract, which produces an audible friction. The vocal tract constriction does not have to result in complete blocking; it can simply be a restriction of air flow. [Crystal 1985: 66]
ContextOfUseTaxon Update Definition value ContextOfUseTaxon is the class of taxons whose instances classify language varieties according to how they are primarily used.
ContinuousAspect Update Definition value A value of Aspect Property assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that which indicates that the situation spoken about has internal temporal structure, but the situation cannot be regarded as habitual (i.e. it cannot be regarded as a characteristic feature of a whole period). Hence, continuousness can be defined negatively as imperfectivity that is not habituality [Comrie 1976: 26-32], and it can be regarded as a sub-type of imperfectivity. Typically, for an aspect value to be labelled as Continuous, the aspectual meaning has to minimally express continuousness, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings, or actionality distinctions. Continuous aspectual meaning can be further subdivided into two types: progressive meaning and nonprogressive meaning. These two aspectual meanings may or may not be grammaticalised as separate aspect values.
ConVerb New Definition value A term that refers to a verb form used in some languages for adverbial subordination. [Haspelmath 2002: 268]
CoordinatingConnective Update Definition value A coordinating connective is a connective that links constituents without syntactically subordinating one to the other [Crystal 1997: 93].
Copula New Definition value This term is used in grammatical description to indicate verbs which connect other elements of a clause while contributing little to no independent meaning. [Crystal 1980: 93]
CoronalProperty Update Definition value Properties of sounds produced with passive articulators either lying on the coronal axis, with the blade of the tongue raised from its neutral position, or in the neutral position (for non-coronal sounds). [Crystal 1980: 94]
CorrelativeConnective Update Definition value A correlative connective is either of a pair of coordinating conjunctions (connectives) used in ordered fashion. Typically, one is used immediately before each member of a pair of constituents [Crystal 1997: 96].
CoVerb New Definition value A term referring to complex predicates comprised of two verbs; one of these is an auxiliary which contributes some form of meaning in the form of modality, direction, etc. They serve a similar purpose to adpositions in Indo-European languages, and are almost always translated as such. Some examples are found in some east and southeast Asian languages, as well as African languages and Hungarian. [Yang and Kuo 1998: 20]
Creaky Update Definition value A term referring to a vocal quality in phonetic sound classification in which only one end of the vocal cords vibrates, and does so very slowly. This is a permanent feature of some speakers' voices. [Crystal 1980: 97]
DativeCase Update Definition value DativeCase marks 1) Indirect objects (for languages in which they are held to exist) or 2) nouns having the role of recipient (as of things given), beneficiary of an action, or possessor of an item [Crystal 1980: 102].
DeductiveEvidentiality Update Definition value DeductiveEvidentiality encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression through a sound inference procedure. [Palmer 2001: 6-8].
DefiniteArticle Update Definition value An definite article is a part of speech whose members refer to a specific, identifiable entity (or class of entities) [Crystal 1997: 107].
DelativeCase Update Definition value DelativeCase expresses motion downward from the referent of the noun it marks [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 53].
Demonstrative Update Definition value A demonstrative is a determiner that is used deictically to indicate a referent's spatial, temporal, or discourse location. A demonstrative functions as a modifier of a noun, or a pronoun [Crystal 1997: 312].
Dental Delete Definition value Characterizing sounds produced with the area behind the teeth but in front of the center of the alveolar ridge as the passive articulator [Ladefoged 1997, 597].
Dental Update Definition value Characterizing sounds produced with the area behind the teeth but in front of the center of the alveolar ridge as the passive articulator [Ladefoged 1997: 597].
DeponentMiddleVoice Update Definition value Action denotes physical/mental disposition of subject. [Siewierska 1988: 257]
DerivationalUnit Update Definition value DerivationalUnit is the class of functional units whose members function to derive a new lexical unit from an existing one, by systematically changing the meaning and possibly altering the part of speech feature of the root or stem it attaches to [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 62; Crystal 1985: 89; Bybee 1985: 81-82, 99].
Determiner Update Definition value A Determiner is a part of speech whose members belong to a class of noun modifiers and express the reference, including quantity, of a noun [Crystal 1997: 112].
DiminuativeSize Update Definition value A special form of a noun that signals that the object being referred to is small relative to the usual size of such an object. In some cases it may be used as a term of endearment [Crystal 1980: 116].
DirectEvidentiality Update Definition value DirectEvidential, also called sensory, encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression by having direct sensory experience of some situation; this does not include hearing about it from someone else [Palmer 2001: 35-36].
DirectVoice New Definition value Direct voice signals that the action proceeds in an ontologically salient way, i.e. that salience is assigned to nominals based on their referent's relative real-world capacities to control situations. [Klaiman 1991: 32]
Disjunction New Definition value Disjunction refers to a process whose primary function is to mark a relationship of contrast or comparison between structures, using such disjunctive items as or and but. [Crystal 1985: 97]
Disjunction Delete Definition value no documentation yet
DistributiveAspect Delete Definition value DistributiveAspect
DistributiveAspect Update Definition value [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 59; Comrie 1985: 344]
DistributiveAspect Update Definition value A verbal aspect expressing that the action or state denoted by the verb is performed or experienced simultaneously by more than one individual or object. [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 59]
DitransitiveVerb Update Definition value A ditransitive verb is a verb that takes two objects [Crystal 1997: 397].
DorsalProperty Update Definition value The class of properties associated with sounds made with the body of the tongue [Ladefoged 1997: 601]. Almost all vowels can be described using subclasses of this property.
DualNumber Update Definition value Corbett 2000: 2595
DualNumber Update Definition value [Corbett 2000: 2595]
DualNumber Update Definition value Dual refers to two members of a designated class [Crystal 1997: 26]. It typically occurs in a number system together with Singular and LargePlural, or with Singular, Trial and Multal.
DurativeAspect Update Definition value Events which involve some duration [Bhat 1999: 58].
ElativeCase Update Definition value ElativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location out of which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'out of' [Lyons 1968: 299; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 64; Crystal 1985: 106].
ElativeCase Update Definition value ElativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location out of which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'out of' [Lyons 1968: 299; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 64; Crystal 1985: 106].
Enclitic Update Definition value An enclitic is a clitic that is phonologically joined at the end of a preceding lexical unit to form a single phonological unit [Crystal 1980: 64; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 65].
EpistemicNecessityModality Update Definition value EpistemicNecessityModality indicates that the expressed proposition is known to be true. Also known as CategoricalModality [Palmer 2001: 37, 68-69].
ErgativeCase Update Definition value ErgativeCase in ergative-absolutive languages generally identifies the subject of transitive verbs in the translation equivalents of nominative-accusative Languages such as English [Crystal 1980: 134; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 78; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 67; Andrews 1985: 138].
EssiveCase Update Definition value EssiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location at which another referent exists [Lyons 1968: 299, 301; Crystal 1985: 112; Blake 2001].
ExistentialMarker Update Definition value An existential marker is a syntactic category whose members are found in distinct clause types and which mark a referent's existence [Crystal 1997: 142].
Expletive Update Definition value An expletive (also known as a dummy word) is a part of speech whose members have no meaning, but complete a sentence to make it grammatical [Crystal 1997: 127].
FeminineGender Update Definition value A gender property established on the basis of agreement, to which nouns may be assigned if 1) they inherently denote females. Additionally, but not necessarily, nouns may be assigned this value if: 2) their formal properties (morphological or phonological) lead them to be assigned to the same agreement pattern as other nouns within the language that have female denotation. 3) they are arbitrarily assigned to the same agreement pattern as other nouns in the language that have female denotation [Corbett 1991].
FocusAntipassiveVoice Update Definition value Blocks the P or logical object (basic absolutive) nominal from being assigned Focus salience. Topic salience is available for assignment to various arguments, including the P, but Focus salience is always assigned to A, and is therefore inaccessible to P or any other nominal. [Klaiman 1991: 236]
FocusAntipassiveVoice Update Definition value Blocks the P or logical object (basic absolutive) nominal from being assigned Focus salience. Topic salience is available for assignment to various arguments, including the P, but Focus salience is always assigned to A, and is therefore inaccessible to P or any other nominal. [Klaiman 1991: 236]
FolkloreEvidentiality Update Definition value FolkloreEvidentiality encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression through legend, folklore or some other established tradition [Palmer 2001: 40].
Foot New Definition value Used to describe the unit of rhythm in languages displaying isochrony, i.e. wehre the stressed syllables fall at apprxominately regular intervals throughout an utterance. It is an extension of the term used in traditional studies of metrical verse structure, where the many regular patterns of stressed/unstressed syllables were given a detailed classification. In a more general phonological sense, the notion is applied to any utterance in a stress-timed language, not just verse. [Crystal 1985: 123-124]
FrequentiveAspect Update Definition value Events which are frequently repeated, differs from habitual in that it can only be based upon the observation of several occurrences of the event concerned, whereas habitual can be based upon the observation of a single occurrence [Bhat 1999: 53].
Front Delete Definition value Characterizing sounds produced with the tongue near the front of the mouth.
Functor Update Definition value Functor is the class of syntactic word whose members are neither relation- nor argument-like non-relational [Anderson 1997: 20]. Typical functors include adpositions, subordinators, and complementizers.
FutureInFutureTense Update Definition value FutureInFutureTense locates the situation in question in the future, relative to a temporal reference point that itself is located in the future relative to the moment of utterance [Comrie 1985: 128].
FutureInPastTense Update Definition value FutureInPastTense locates the situation in question in the future, relative to a contextually determined temporal reference point that itself must be located in the past relative to the moment of utterance [Comrie 1985: 128].
FuturePerfectTense Delete Definition value Describes an event that occurs after the time of speaking but before some reference point in time which also occurs after the time of speaking. This is also known as PastInFutureTense. [Comrie 1985, 126]
FuturePerfectTense Update Definition value Describes an event that occurs after the time of speaking but before some reference point in time which also occurs after the time of speaking. This is also known as PastInFutureTense. [Comrie 1985: 126]
GeneralNumber New Definition value In some languages for which number is less dominant, the meaning of the noun can be expressed without reference to number. Nouns with this marking are designated as outside of the number system, as they are noncommittal as to the number of the noun that they mark.
GeneralNumber Update Definition value In some languages for which number is less dominant, the meaning of the noun can be expressed without reference to number. Nouns with this marking are designated as outside of the number system, as they are noncommittal as to the number of the noun that they mark. [Corbett 2000: 9-10]
GenitiveCase Update Definition value GenitiveCase is used to mark the noun whose referent is the possessor of the referent of another noun [Crystal 1980: 161; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 94-95, 180; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 82, 172; Anderson 1985: 185; Fleming 1988: 10].
Gerund Update Definition value A part of speech derived from a verb and used as a noun, usually restricted to non-finite forms of the verb [Crystal 1997: 279].
GreaterPlural Delete Concept
HabitualAspect Update Definition value A value of Aspect Property assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that which indicates that the situation spoken about is characteristic of an extended period of time --- so extended that the situation is viewed as characteristic of the whole period. The decision that a situation is characteristic of an extended period of time is not in itself linguistic, but once it has been made, an explicitly habitual form can be used to describe it. Note that the classification of a situation as characteristic of a period of time is not derived directly from the comparison of their length or frequency; hence, the situation may be objectively either long or short, and either frequent or infrequent, with respect to the period it characterises. This is because the way we choose to characterise can involve a component which is objectively small in relation to the whole. Typically, for an aspect value to be labelled as Habitual, the aspectual meaning has to minimally express habituality, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings, or actionality distinctions. Habituality can in principle be combined with any other semantic aspectual values appropriate to situations that can be protracted in time or iterated [Comrie 1976: 26-32]. Since habituality is concerned with the internal temporal structure of the (extended) event, it can be regarded as a sub-type of imperfectivity.
HabitualAspect Update Definition value A value of Aspect Property assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that which indicates that the situation spoken about is characteristic of an extended period of time -- so extended that the situation is viewed as characteristic of the whole period. The decision that a situation is characteristic of an extended period of time is not in itself linguistic, but once it has been made, an explicitly habitual form can be used to describe it. Note that the classification of a situation as characteristic of a period of time is not derived directly from the comparison of their length or frequency; hence, the situation may be objectively either long or short, and either frequent or infrequent, with respect to the period it characterises. This is because the way we choose to characterise can involve a component which is objectively small in relation to the whole. Typically, for an aspect value to be labelled as Habitual, the aspectual meaning has to minimally express habituality, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings, or actionality distinctions. Habituality can in principle be combined with any other semantic aspectual values appropriate to situations that can be protracted in time or iterated [Comrie 1976: 26-32]. Since habituality is concerned with the internal temporal structure of the (extended) event, it can be regarded as a sub-type of imperfectivity.
HearsayEvidentiality Update Definition value HearsayEvidentiality, also called third hand, encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression from a source generally considered less reliable than with a SecondHandEvidential [Palmer 2001: 40].
HesternalPastTense Update Definition value HesternalPastTense locates the situation in question somewhere in the span beginning with the period defined culturally as 'yesterday' and extends back through some period that is considered nonremote [Comrie 1985: 87-88; Dahl 1985: 126].
High Delete Definition value Characterizing sounds produced with the tongue near the top of the mouth.
HodiernalFutureTense Update Definition value HodiernalFutureTense locates the situation in question after the moment of utterance within the span culturally defined as 'today' [Comrie 1985: 86; Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 247].
HodiernalPastTense Update Definition value HodiernalPastTense locates the situation in question before the moment of utterance within the span culturally defined as 'today' [Comrie 1985: 87; Dahl 1985: 125-126]. Contrasts with PreHodiernalPastTense.
HumanGender New Definition value A grammatical category used for analysis of word-classes displaying such contrasts as masculine/feminine/neuter, animate/inanimate, etc. It is also important to distinguish natural gender, items referring to the sex of real-world entities, and grammatical gender, which has nothing to do with sex, but which has an important role in signaling grammatical relations between words in a sentence.
HumanGender Delete Definition value [Need comment]
HumanGender Update Definition value A grammatical category used for analysis of word-classes displaying such contrasts as masculine/feminine/neuter, animate/inanimate, etc. It is also important to distinguish natural gender, items referring to the sex of real-world entities, and grammatical gender, which has nothing to do with sex, but which has an important role in signaling grammatical relations between words in a sentence. [Crystal 1985: 133]
IllativeCase Update Definition value IllativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location into which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'into' [Lyons 1968: 299; Crystal 1985: 152].
ImmediateFutureTense Update Definition value ImmediateFutureTense, also called 'close future', locates the situation in question shortly after the moment of utterance [Dahl 1985: 121; Comrie 1985: 94; Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 244-245).
ImmediatePastTense Update Definition value ImmediatePastTense locates the situation in question at a time considered very recent in relation to the moment of utterance [Comrie 1985: 87].
ImperativeForce New Definition value ImperativeForce indicates that the speaker requests or demands action on the part of the hearer.
ImperativeForce Delete Definition value [Need comment]
ImperativeForce Update Definition value Imperative force indicates that the speaker requests or demands action on the part of the hearer.
ImperfectiveAspect Update Definition value A value of Aspect Property assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that which indicates that the event spoken about is to be looked at from inside, from within its temporal boundaries; imperfective aspect is crucially concerned with the internal temporal structure of the event [Comrie 1976: 16ff]. Typically, for an aspect value to be labelled as Imperfective, the aspectual meaning has to minimally express the imperfective viewpoint, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings, or actionality distinctions. Imperfective aspectual meaning can be further subdivided into two types: habitual meaning and continuous meaning. These two aspectual meanings may or may not be grammaticalised as separate aspect values.
ImpersonalPassiveVoice Update Definition value A Passive that alters the mapping of a nominal to the Subject relation in a basic intransitive structure [Klaiman 1991: 23]
ImpersonalPassiveVoice Update Definition value A Passive that alters the mapping of a nominal to the Subject relation in a basic intransitive structure [Klaiman 1991: 23].
InanimateGender Update Definition value A grammatical gender property such that membership in the inanimate grammatical class is largely based on meaning, in that non-living things, such as objects of manufacture and natural 'non-living' things are included in it. For example, one of the two grammatical genders, or noun classes, of Nishnaabemwin, the other being animate [Valentine 2001: 114].
InceptiveAspect Update Definition value InceptiveAspect, also called the ingressive, encodes the beginning portion of some event [Bybee 1985: 147, 149; Payne 1997: 240; Bhat 1999: 176].
IncorporatingAntipassiveVoice Update Definition value Blocks the P or logical object (basic absolutive) nominal from being assigned Focus salience. This correlates with the P's morphosyntactic downgrading, whereby it becomes insusceptible to any informational salience assignment. [Klaiman 1991: 236]
IndefiniteArticle Update Definition value An article is a part of speech whose members are used to refer to an entity (or class of entities) which is not capable of specific identification [Crystal 1997: 193].
IndefinitePronoun Update Definition value An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun that belongs to a class whose members indicate indefinite reference [Crystal 1997: 312].
IndirectEvidentiality Update Definition value IndirectEvidentiality, also called reported, encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression from a source other than by experiencing the situation directly [Palmer 2001: 40].
InessiveCase Update Definition value InessiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location within which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'within' or 'inside' [Lyons 1968: 299; Crystal 1985: 156]. X in Y.
InferentialEvidentiality Update Definition value InferentialEvidentiality encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression through some kind of internal inference procedure, e.g., deduction, abduction, induction [Palmer 2001: 6-8].
Infix New Definition value A term used in morphology referring to an affix which is added within a root or stem.
Infix Update Definition value A term used in morphology referring to an affix which is added within a root or stem. [Crystal 1985: 157]
InflectionalUnit Update Definition value InflectionalUnit is the class of functional units whose members designate such grammatical categories as tense, aspect, mood etc. The various forms of an InflectionalUnit plus the stem forms a grammatical paradigm and express a grammatical contrast that is obligatory for its stem's part of speech in some given grammatical context. An inflectional unit does not alter the part of speech feature of the root or stem it attaches to. It is typically located farther from its Root than a derivational unit and produces a predictable, nonidiosyncratic change of meaning [Crystal 1980: 184; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 112; Bybee 1985: 2, 99].
InstrumentalCase Update Definition value InstrumentalCase indicates that the referent of the noun it marks is the means of the accomplishment of the action expressed by the clause [Crystal 1980: 187; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 114].
Interjection Update Definition value An interjection is a part of speech, typically brief in form, such as one syllable or word, whose members are used most often as exclamations or parts of an exclamation. An interjection, typically expressing an emotional reaction, often with respect to an accompanying sentence, is not syntactically related to other accompanying expressions, and may include a combination of sounds not otherwise found in the language [Crystal 1997: 200].
InterlinearGlossedText Update Definition value Interlinear glossed text (IGT) is a linguistic data structure meant to display morphosyntactic structure: morphemes, morpheme boundaries, morpheme types (clitics, prefixes, reduplicated forms), morphosyntactic features/values and part of speech information. At a minimum, an instance of IGT includes a single line of source language followed by a translation line. Often, a second gloss line is included to show detailed morphosyntactic structure using both words and phrases from the target language and various labels, or 'grams', that indicate morphosyntactic features/values, etc. It is possible to include separate lines for the orthographic form, phonetic form, and phonological form. Standards for IGT include the Leipzig Glossing Rules.
InterminativeCase Update Definition value Expresses the notion of something moving into the inside of a reference of the noun it marks. It has the meaning ‘into the inside of’.
InterrogativeForce Update Definition value Interrogative force indicates that the speaker lacks certain knowledge about what is expressed, and may thereby be seeking information from the hearer. In that case, it is equivalent to a type of imperative: "Tell me ...".
InterrogativeOperator Update Definition value Also referred to as a 'question particle', an interrogative operator is a category whose members signal a yes/no question [Payne 1997: 296].
IntransitiveVerb Update Definition value An intransitive verb is a verb that cannot take a direct object, and describes a property, state, or situation involving only one participant [Crystal 1997: 397; Payne 1997: 171].
InverseVoice New Definition value Signals when actions proceed from ontologically less salient to more salient participants.
IrrealisMood Delete Definition value IrrealisMood
IterativeAspect Update Definition value IterativeAspect, also called repetitives, encodes a number of events of the same type that are repeated on a particular occasion. The time interval which is relevant to the iterative is relatively shorter than in the case of the habitual [Bybee 1985: 150; Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 127]. Portrays events repeated on the same occasion (like the iterative knocking on the door) [Bhat 1999: 53].
LabialProperty Update Definition value The class of properties associated with characteristics of labial articulations [Ladefoged 1997: 594].
Laminal Update Definition value Characterizing sounds produced by the blade of the tongue [Ladefoged 1997: 596].
LateralEscape Delete Definition value Characterizing sounds produced with a release of air through the sides of the mouth. (Note, [Ladefoged 1997] refers to this as lateral.)
LativeCase Update Definition value LativeCase expresses 'motion up to the location of,' or 'as far as' the referent of the noun it marks [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 121].
LinguisticExpression Update Definition value A LinguisticExpression is any physical form (sound, visual image or sequence thereof) used to represent a linguistic unit. A linguistic expression may be spoken, written, or signed. A linguistic expression is distinct form the actual process (speaking, writing, signing) that produces the expression.
LocativePassiveVoice Update Definition value An oblique locative nominal assumes the subject relation. [Klaiman 1991: 17]
LocativePassiveVoice Update Definition value An oblique locative nominal assumes the subject relation [Klaiman 1991: 17]
LocativePassiveVoice Update Definition value An oblique locative nominal assumes the subject relation [Klaiman 1991: 17].
Low Delete Definition value Characterizing sounds produced with the tongue near the bottom of the mouth.
MainClause Update Definition value MainClause is the class of clauses that can stand on their own as a full, independent sentence. If a sentence contains any embedded clauses, the main clause is understood as the matrix plus the embedded clauses. In the sentence 'John thinks that Mary is sick', 'John thinks that Mary is sick' is the main clause [Crystal 2001: 231].
MainClause Update Definition value MainClause is the class of clauses that can stand on their own as a full, independent sentence. If a sentence contains any embedded clauses, the main clause is understood as the matrix plus the embedded clauses. In the sentence 'John thinks that Mary is sick', 'John thinks that Mary is sick' is the main clause. [Crystal 2001: 231]
MentalAbilitiveModality Update Definition value MentalAbilitiveModality indicates that an agent has the capacity to perform some mental action [Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 192; Palmer 2001: 77].
MinusATR Delete Definition value Characterizing sounds made with the tongue root in the neutral position.
MinusClick Update Definition value MinusClick refers to not having the properties of a click. Clicks are stops in which the essential component is the rarefaction of air enclosed between two articulatory closures formed in the oral cavity, so that a loud transient is produced when the more forward closure is released. This uses the velaric airstream mechanism, always ingressive, and cannot be used for sounds other than stops and affricates. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 246]
MinusFortis Update Definition value MinusFortis refers to a sound made without relatively strong degree of muscular effort and breath force. [Crystal 1985: 126]
MinusNasal Delete Definition value Characterizing sounds produced with no air escaping through the nose.
ModalityProperty Update Definition value ModalityProperty is the class of properties that concern the grammatical encoding of the status of the proposition itself, and not of the event to which the proposition refers, cf. AspectProperty [Palmer 2001: 1]. As a grammatical property, it represents those dimensions in the domains of knowledge (epistemic modality), social relations (deontic modality) and ability (abilitative modality), and possibly others.
Mora New Definition value Mora refers to the several parts of the phoneme which may receive divergent tonal treatments [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 138]. A mora also can refer to a minimal unit of metrical time equivalent to a short syllable [Crystal 1985: 198].
MorphosyntacticProperty Update Definition value MorphosyntacticFeature is the class of linguistic features that govern the grammatical behavior of morphosyntactic units. E.g., two morphosyntactic units can agree according to shared morphosyntactic features. Morphosyntactic features are also called grammatical categories. This class is intended to represent only the formal aspects of morphosyntax; that is, there is no notional component. In a grammatical system, such features occur in contrast to one another other, and are typically expressed in the same fashion [Crystal 1985: 43-44; Hopper, P. 1992: 81; Bybee 1985: 191].
MorphosyntacticProperty Update Definition value MorphosyntacticFeature is the class of linguistic features that govern the grammatical behavior of morphosyntactic units. E.g., two morphosyntactic units can agree according to shared morphosyntactic features. Morphosyntactic features are also called grammatical categories. This class is intended to represent only the formal aspects of morphosyntax; that is, there is no notional component. In a grammatical system, such features occur in contrast to one another other, and are typically expressed in the same fashion. [Crystal 1985: 43-44; Hopper, P. 1992: 81; Bybee 1985: 191]
MultiplicativeNumeral Update Definition value A multiplicative numeral is a numeral that expresses how many fold or how many times [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 149; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 147].
NearFutureTense Delete Definition value @en
NearFutureTense Delete Definition value
NecessitativePassiveVoice Update Definition value A passive in Irish in which the preposition "with" is used, and a semantic meaning of necessity is added. [Noonan 1994: 280]
NecessitativePassiveVoice Update Definition value A passive in Irish in which the preposition "with" is used, and a semantic meaning of necessity is added [Noonan 1994: 280].
NegativePolarity Update Definition value A construction that expresses the contradiction of some or all of a proposition [Crystal 1980: 257]. Note: this value is not to be confused with the notion "Negative Polarity Item", which is an expression that occurs in the scope of Negation (i.e. Negative Polarity).
NeuterGender Delete Definition value NeuterGender
Nominal Update Definition value A nominal is a partOfSpeech whose members differ grammatically from a substantive but which functions as one [Crystal 1997: 260].
NominativeCase Update Definition value NominativeCase identifies clause subjects in nominative-accusative languages. It is usually the unmarked case. Nouns used in isolation often have this case [Crystal 1980: 242; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 147; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 224].
NominativeCase Update Definition value NominativeCase identifies clause subjects in nominative-accusative languages. It is usually the unmarked case. Nouns used in isolation often have this case. [Crystal 1980: 242; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 147; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 224]
NonAbsolutiveAntipassiveVoice Update Definition value An Antipassive in which the P or logical object is overtly downgraded [Klaiman 1991: 232].
NonFutureTense Update Definition value NonFutureTense locates the situation in question at or before the moment of utterance, and contrasts with a FutureTense [Comrie 1985: 49].
NonPastTense Update Definition value NonPastTense locates the situation in question at or after the moment of utterance, and contrasts with a past tense [Comrie 1985: 48-49].
NonProgressiveAspect Update Definition value A value of Aspect Property (also stative aspect) assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that which indicates that the situation spoken about has internal temporal structure, it cannot be regarded as habitual, but is regarded as a continuing state. Hence, Nonprogressive Aspect can be regarded as a sub-type of continuousness (which, in turn, is a sub-type of imperfectivity). Since languages have different criteria for classifying predicates as stative or not, they may have different rules for determining when explicitly nonprogressive (i.e. explicitly stative) forms can be used. Typically, for an aspect value to be labelled as Nonprogressive, the aspectual meaning has to minimally express nonprogressiveness, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings, or actionality distinctions.
NonProgressiveAspect Delete Definition value A value of Aspect Property (also stative aspect) assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that which indicates that the situation spoken about has internal temporal structure, it cannot be regarded as habitual, but is regarded as a continuing state. Hence, Nonprogressive Aspect can be regarded as a sub-type of continuousness (which, in turn, is a sub-type of imperfectivity). Since languages have different criteria for classifying predicates as stative or not, they may have different rules for determining when explicitly nonprogressive (i.e. explicitly stative) forms can be used. Typically, for an aspect value to be labelled as Nonprogressive, the aspectual meaning has to minimally express nonprogressiveness, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings, or actionality distinctions.
NonProgressiveAspect Update Definition value A value of Aspect Property (also stative aspect) assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that which indicates that the situation spoken about has internal temporal structure, it cannot be regarded as habitual, but is regarded as a continuing state. Hence, Nonprogressive Aspect can be regarded as a sub-type of continuousness (which, in turn, is a sub-type of imperfectivity). Since languages have different criteria for classifying predicates as stative or not, they may have different rules for determining when explicitly nonprogressive (i.e. explicitly stative) forms can be used. Typically, for an aspect value to be labelled as Nonprogressive, the aspectual meaning has to minimally express nonprogressiveness, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings, or actionality distinctions.
NonPromotionalInverseVoice Update Definition value Involves demotion of the non-topical obviate-agent from subjecthood [Givon 1994: 24].
Noun Update Definition value A noun is a broad classification of parts of speech usually identifying time-stable concept [Crystal 1997: 371].
NounClassifier Update Definition value A classifier is a partOfSpeech whose members express the classification of a noun [Crystal 1997: 61; Payne 1997: 107].
NucleonicMiddleVoice Update Definition value Object of action belongs to. Moves into, or moves from sphere of subject [Siewierska 1988: 257].
NumberProperty Update Definition value NumberProperty is the class of properties that concern the grammatical encoding of quantity. It is often found on nouns, pronouns, and verbs and expresses count distinctions--such as 'one' or 'more than one'. The count distinctions typically, but not always, correspond to the actual count of the referents of the marked noun or Pronoun [Crystal 1980: 245; Hartmann and Stork 1972,: 155].
NumberProperty Update Definition value NumberProperty is the class of properties that concern the grammatical encoding of quantity. It is often found on nouns, pronouns, and verbs and expresses count distinctions--such as 'one' or 'more than one'. The count distinctions typically, but not always, correspond to the actual count of the referents of the marked noun or Pronoun. [Crystal 1980: 245; Hartmann and Stork 1972,: 155]
NumberProperty Update Definition value NumberProperty is the class of properties that concern the grammatical encoding of quantity. It is often found on nouns, pronouns, and verbs and expresses count distinctions--such as 'one' or 'more than one'. The count distinctions typically, but not always, correspond to the actual count of the referents of the marked noun or Pronoun. [Crystal 1980: 245; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 155]
Numeral Update Definition value A numeral is a partOfSpeech whose members function most typically as adjectives or pronouns and express a number, or relation to the number, such as one of the following: quantity, sequence, frequency, fraction [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 155; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 149].
ObligativeModality Update Definition value ObligativeModality indicates that an agent is required to perform the action expressed by the predicate [Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 177; Palmer 2001: 71].
ObliqueCase Update Definition value In a direct/oblique system or in a nominative/oblique system, oblique case is the term for all roles not marked by the direct case or nominative case. In the phrase 'the oblique cases' it is used to refer to a set of cases excluding the nominative (occasionally the nominative or accusative). [Bauer 2004: 27]
ObliquePassiveVoice Update Definition value A Passive in which a basic Oblique nominal assumes the Subject relation in a corresponding nonbasic configuration. Can include locative passives, benefactive passives and instrumental passives [Klaiman 1991: 23].
ObliquePassiveVoice Update Definition value A Passive in which a basic Oblique nominal assumes the Subject relation in a corresponding nonbasic configuration. Can include locative passives, benefactive passives and instrumental passives. [Klaiman 1991: 23]
OptativeMood Update Definition value Optative indicates that the speaker wishes or hopes that the expressed proposition be the case [Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 179; Palmer 2001: 204].
OrdinalNumeral Update Definition value An ordinal numeral is a numeral belonging to a class whose members designate positions in a sequence [Crystal 1997: 272].
OrthographicSystem New Definition value A system of the art and rules of spelling according to the accepted standards, i.e., the use of the written characters of a language for forming words and sentences in conformity with the rules conventionally recognized as correct. [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 155]
OtherSourceEvidentiality Update Definition value OtherSourceEvidentiality indicates that the agent relies on another source for their belief in what they say.
OtherThanVisualEvidentiality Update Definition value OtherThanVisualEvidentiality encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression directly in a way other than through visual experience; they heard it, smelled it, tasted it, etc. [Palmer 2001: 36, 57].
Participle Update Definition value A participle is a word which participates as both a verb (by showing tense) and as an adjective (by showing adjectival inflection). In modern usage, the term refers to a non-finite part of the verb other than the infinitive (independent of the function of these forms in the sentence). [Bauer 2004: 82]
PartitiveCase Update Definition value PartitiveCase expresses the partial nature of the referent of the noun it marks, as opposed to expressing the whole unit or class of which the referent is a part. This case may be found in items such as the following: existential clauses, nouns that are accompanied by numerals or units of measure, or predications of material from which something is made. It often has a meaning similar to the English word 'some' [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 161; Richards, Platt, and Weber 1985: 208; Quirk, et al. 1985: 249; Sebeok 1946: 1214].
PartitiveCase Update Definition value PartitiveCase expresses the partial nature of the referent of the noun it marks, as opposed to expressing the whole unit or class of which the referent is a part. This case may be found in items such as the following: existential clauses, nouns that are accompanied by numerals or units of measure, or predications of material from which something is made. It often has a meaning similar to the English word 'some'. [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 161; Richards, Platt, and Weber 1985: 208; Quirk, et al. 1985: 249; Sebeok 1946: 1214]
PartitiveNumeral Update Definition value A partitive numeral is a numeral that expresses a fraction [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 149; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 165].
PassiveVoice Update Definition value Associated with actions performed on the subject by an unspecified agent [McIntosh 1984: 108]. Refers to the category of verb forms, typically identifies with a specific morphological marking, that encode the derived diatheses in which the agent role is not linked with a subject noun phrase: Diatheis: D1=(X=AgOb)(Y+SUBabs/nom) [Shibatani 1995: 7].
PastInPastTense Update Definition value Locates the situation in question prior to a reference time in the past before the time of the speaking event. This is also known as the PluperfectTense [Comrie 1985: 125].
PejorativeEvaluative Update Definition value An evaluative property of a noun that indicates the speaker regards the person or object being referred to with distaste, contempt, or displeasure [Valentine 2001: 190-193].
PerfectiveAspect Update Definition value A value of Aspect Property assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that which indicates that the event spoken about is to be viewed as a bounded whole, looked at from outside, without necessarily distinguishing any of its internal structure [Comrie 1976: 16ff). Typically, for an aspect value to be labeled as Perfective, the aspectual meaning has to minimally express the perfective viewpoint, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings, or actionality distinctions.
PerfectiveAspect Delete Definition value A value of Aspect Property assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that which indicates that the event spoken about is to be viewed as a bounded whole, looked at from outside, without necessarily distinguishing any of its internal structure [Comrie 1976,16ff). Typically, for an aspect value to be labeled as Perfective, the aspectual meaning has to minimally express the perfective viewpoint, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings, or actionality distinctions.
PerfectiveAspect Update Definition value A value of Aspect Property assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that which indicates that the event spoken about is to be viewed as a bounded whole, looked at from outside, without necessarily distinguishing any of its internal structure [Comrie 1976: 16ff]. Typically, for an aspect value to be labeled as Perfective, the aspectual meaning has to minimally express the perfective viewpoint, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings, or actionality distinctions.
PermissiveModality Update Definition value PermissiveModality indicates that an agent has permission to perform the action expressed by the predicate [Palmer 2001: 10, 71].
PersonalPassiveVoice Update Definition value A Passive in which the argument mapped to Object in a basic structural configuration assumes the Subject relation in a corresponding nonbasic configuration [Klaiman 1991: 23].
PhasalAspect Update Definition value A set of aspectual distinctions involving relations between a background situation (the reference situation) and a situation located relative to the reference situation (the denoted situation). In English, phasal distinctions are expressed by auxiliary-headed constructions, like the inceptive, progressive, and perfect constructions, whose head verbs express the aspectual class of the denoted situation. The aspectual class of the denoted situation differs from that of the reference situation [Michaelis 1998: xv]. An event may have a beginning and an end, a middle portion (continuing or changing), and also an ensuing result or an altered state. These are considered to be the various "phases" of an event. A speaker may talk about an event from the point of view of any of these individual phases, and his language may have inflectional (or other type of) markers for representing these distinctions. Since such markers indicate distinctions in the temporal structure of an event, we may regard them as belonging to the category of aspect. It has been suggested [Dik 1989: 186] that these may be grouped under a subcategory (or "level") of aspect called "phasal aspect". [Bhat 1999: 49]
Phoneme New Definition value A phoneme is a single speech-sound or a group of similar or related speech-sounds which function analogously in a given language and are usually represented in writing by the same letter. Bloomfield calls the phoneme "a minimum unit of distinctive sound-feature." It may be defined also as "a minimal bundle of relevant sound features." [Pei and Gaylor 1980: 167]
Phrase Update Definition value Phrase is the class of syntactic constructions that consist of one or more syntactic words, but lack the subject-predicate organization of a clause. Phrases get their grammatical characteristics according to what word occupies the head position; thus, all phrases have heads. [Crystal 1980: 232-233; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 169; Pike and Pike 1982: 453]
PlaceProperty Update Definition value The superclass of properties that specify the location of the articulators [Ladefoged 1997: 594].
PlainMiddleVoice Update Definition value Results of action occur to subject [Siewierska 1988: 257].
PluralNumber Update Definition value PluralNumber is a number property that quantifies the denotation of the nominal element so that: 1) it specifies that there are more than one. In this English example below, plural is shown by both the noun and the verb in (2): (1) my dog watches television (2) my dogs watch television [Corbett 2000: 5] 2) additionally, but not necessarily, pluralNumber may be assigned on the basis of formal properties (e.g. pluralia tantum, or measles / *measle). 3) if pluralNumber functions as generalNumber, it may specify a lack of commitment with regard to quantification ([Corbett 2000: 17] notes this system does not exist in pure form, that is, no language employs it as the normal case). Some Cushitic languages, generalNumber can be the same as singularNumber for some nouns, but the same as pluralNumber for other nouns. For example, in Arbore (arv), generalNumber may contrast with the singular in the absence of a distinct plural form: Ln Singular Ln tiis-in 'a maize cob' Ln lasa-n 'a loaf' nebel-in 'a cock ostrich' ln General ln tíise 'maize cob(s)' ln lássa 'bread' ln nebel 'ostrich(es)' ln [Corbett 2000: 17-18]
PlusATR Delete Definition value Characterizing sounds made with advanced tongue root.
PlusClick Update Definition value PlusClick refers to having the properties of a click. Clicks are stops in which the essential component is the rarefaction of air enclosed between two articulatory closures formed in the oral cavity, so that a loud transient is produced when the more forward closure is released. This uses the velaric airstream mechanism, always ingressive, and cannot be used for sounds other than stops and affricates. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 246]
PlusFortis Update Definition value PlusFortis refers to a sound made with relatively strong degree of muscular effort and breath force. [Crystal 1985: 126]
PlusNasal Delete Definition value PlusNasal
PositivePolarity Update Definition value In general, positive polarity refers to an assertion that contains no marker of negation [Crystal 1980: 299].
PossessivePronoun Update Definition value A possessive pronoun is a pronoun that expresses ownership and relationships like ownership, such as kinship, and other forms of association [Crystal 1997: 312].
Postalveolar Update Definition value Characterizing sounds produced with the area just behind the center of the alveolar ridge as the passive articulator [Ladefoged 1997: 597].
PostHodiernalFutureTense Update Definition value PostHodiernalFutureTense locates the situation in question after the span that is culturally defined as 'today' [Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 247].
Postposition Update Definition value A postposition is an adposition that occurs after its complement [Crystal 1997: 300; Payne 1997: 86].
PragmaticInverseVoice Update Definition value If the agent is more topical than the patient, the direct-active clause is used. If norm is reversed and the patient is more topical, the inverse clause is used. [Givon 1994: 23]
Predicator Update Definition value Predicator is the class of syntactic words that are fundamentally relation inducing. That is, predicators license argument structure [Anderson 1997: 14]. Verbs are quintessential predicators, though other categories, such as determiners and some nouns, are also predicative in nature.
PreHodiernalPastTense Update Definition value PreHodiernalPastTense locates the situation in question before that of a contrasting HodiernalPastTense. According to Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca [1994: 98], this category must be defined relative to a HodiernalPastTense.
Prenoun Update Definition value An element which may be compounded to the front of a noun to signal information such as size, color, etc. [Valentine 2001: 152-154].
Preposition Update Definition value A preposition is an adposition that occurs before its complement [Crystal 1997: 305; Payne 1997: 86].
Preverb Update Definition value An element which may be compounded to the front of a verb, to signal information such as tense, direction, etc. [Valentine 2001: 154-158].
Proclitic Update Definition value A proclitic is a clitic that precedes the lexical unit to which it is phonologically joined [Crystal 1980: 64; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 185; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 176].
ProForm Update Definition value A ProForm is a partOfSpeech whose members usually substitute for other constituents, including phrases, clauses, or sentences, and whose meaning is recoverable from the linguistic or extralinguistic context [Schachter 1985: 24-25; Crystal 1997: 310].
ProForm Update Definition value A ProForm is a partOfSpeech whose members usually substitute for other constituents, including phrases, clauses, or sentences, and whose meaning is recoverable from the linguistic or extralinguistic context [Crystal 1997: 310; Schachter 1985: 24-25].
ProgressiveAspect Update Definition value A value of Aspect Property (also called Nonstative aspect) assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that which indicates that the situation spoken about has internal temporal structure, it cannot be regarded as habitual, and reference is made to this situation in progress. Hence, progressiveness can be defined as the combination of progressive meaning with nonstative meaning, and it can be regarded as a sub-type of continuousness (which, in turn, is a sub-type of imperfectivity). Since languages have different criteria for classifying predicates as stative or not, they may have different rules for determining when explicitly progressive forms can be used. Typically, for an aspect value to be labelled as Progressive, the aspectual meaning has to minimally express progressiveness, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings, or actionality distinctions.
ProgressiveAspect Delete Definition value A value of Aspect Property (also called Nonstative aspect) assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that which indicates that the situation spoken about has internal temporal structure, it cannot be regarded as habitual, and reference is made to this situation in progress. Hence, progressiveness can be defined as the combination of progressive meaning with nonstative meaning, and it can be regarded as a sub-type of continuousness (which, in turn, is a sub-type of imperfectivity). Since languages have different criteria for classifying predicates as stative or not, they may have different rules for determining when explicitly progressive forms can be used. Typically, for an aspect value to be labelled as Progressive, the aspectual meaning has to minimally express progressiveness, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings, or actionality distinctions.
ProgressivePassiveVoice Update Definition value A passive in Irish in which the preposition "at" is used, and a semantic meaning of progressive tense is found [Noonan 1994: 280].
ProhibitiveMood Delete Definition value ProhibitiveMood
PromotionalInverseVoice Update Definition value Involves promotion of the topical proximate-patient to subjecthood [Givon 1994: 24].
Pronominal Update Definition value A Pronoun is a ProForm which functions like a noun and substitutes for a noun or noun phrase [Crystal 1997: 312].
ProperNoun Update Definition value ProperNoun, also referred to as proper names, is the class of nouns that are used to address particular persons or culturally significant personages or places. They refer to specific entities and are not usually with articles, modifiers, possessors. [Payne 1997: 39]
Quantifier Update Definition value A quantifier is a determiner that expresses a referent's definite or indefinite number or amount. A quantifier functions as a modifier of a noun, or a pronoun. [Crystal 1997: 317]
RadicalProperty Update Definition value The class of place properties used to classifiy articulatory gestures made with the root of the tongue. [Ladefoged 1997: 603]
RealisMood Delete Definition value ReallisModality
RecentPastTense Update Definition value RecentPastTense locates the situation in question prior to the present moment, but by culturally and situationally defined criteria, usually within the span ranging from yesterday to a week or a few months previous [Comrie 1985: 87; Dahl 1985: 121-122].
ReciprocalMiddleVoice Update Definition value Referents of plural subject do action to one another [Siewierska 1988: 257].
ReciprocalPronoun Update Definition value A reciprocal pronoun is a pronoun that expresses a mutual feeling or action among the referents of a plural subject [Crystal 1997: 323].
ReflexiveMiddleVoice Update Definition value Subjects perform action to self [Siewierska 1988: 257].
ReflexivePassiveVoice Update Definition value A Passive construction which contains reflexive markings [Siewierska 1988: 257].
RelativeFutureTense Update Definition value RelativeFutureTense locates the situation in question after a contextually determined temporal reference point, regardless of the latter's relation to the moment of utterance. Also called FuturePerfectTense. [Comrie 1985: 69-71]
RelativeFutureTense Update Definition value RelativeFutureTense locates the situation in question after a contextually determined temporal reference point, regardless of the latter's relation to the moment of utterance [Comrie 1985: 69-71]. Also called FuturePerfectTense.
RelativePastTense Update Definition value RelativePastTense locates the situation in question before that of a contextually determined temporal reference point [Comrie 1985: 104]. Also called PastPerfectTense.
RelativePronoun Update Definition value A relative pronoun is a pronoun that marks a relative clause, functions grammatically within the relative clause, and is coreferential to the word modified by the relative clause [Crystal 1997: 329].
Relativizer Update Definition value A relativizer is a subordinating connective that links a relative clause to its head noun. It is distinguishable from a relative pronoun in that it does not have a nominal function within the relative clause. [Payne 1997: 332]
RemoteFutureTense Update Definition value RemoteFutureTense locates the situation in question at a time that is considered relatively distant. It is characteristically after the span of time culturally defined as 'tomorrow'. [Dahl 1985: 121; Comrie 1985: 94]
RemotePastTense Update Definition value RemotePastTense locates the situation in question prior to the present moment, usually more than a few days ago [Dahl 1985: 121; Comrie 1985: 88]. Subsumes notion of PreHesternalPast tense, which locates the situation in question before that of an opposing hesternal past tense [Bybee, Perkins, Pagliuca 1994: 98].
Repetitive Update Definition value A derivational unit that derives transitives from other transitive or intransitive stems adding the meaning of repetition to the resulting form.
Retracted Delete Definition value Characterizing sounds involving compression without necessarily drawing the corners of the lips forward.
SalienceProperty Update Definition value Salience relates to the way in which certain actants present in a situation are seized on by humans as foci of attention, with attention being paid to less salient, less individuated objects subsequently [Comrie 1989: 199]. It has been argued that salience explains the evolution of certain syntactic changes, as well as the predominance of word orders where the subject precedes the object, due to the the salience of the agent in the agent-action-patient situation [Comrie 1989; Timberlake 1977].
SalienceProperty Update Concept label SalienceProperty
SaliencePropety New Definition value Salience relates to the way in which certain actants present in a situation are seized on by humans as foci of attention, with attention being paid to less salient, less individuated objects subsequently [Comrie 1989: 199]. It has been argued that salience explains the evolution of certain syntactic changes, as well as the predominance of word orders where the subject precedes the object, due to the the salience of the agent in the agent-action-patient situation [Comrie 1989, Timberlake 1977].
SecondHandEvidentiality Update Definition value SecondHandEvidentiality, also called the quotative, encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression from communicating with someone else [Palmer 2001: 40].
SecondPerson Update Definition value SecondPerson is a person property that refers minimally to the addressee [Crystal 1997: 285; Cysouw 2003: 75].
Segment New Definition value A discrete unit that can be identified in the stream of speech, either physically or auditorily. Features that extend over more than one segment, such as pitch or stress, are termed suprasegmentals. [Crystal 2003; Hartmann & Stork 1972]
Segment Update Definition value A discrete unit that can be identified in the stream of speech, either physically or auditorily. Features that extend over more than one segment, such as pitch or stress, are termed suprasegmentals. [Crystal 2003: 408–409; Hartmann & Stork 1972: 202]
SemanticAssignmentSystem New Definition value For natural language understanding, the process of fine-grain semantic role assignment is one of the prominent steps, which provides semantic relations between constituents. The sense and sense relations between constituents provide the core meaning of a sentence. Abstract semantic roles include thematic roles, such as agent, theme, and instrument, and secondary roles such as location, time, and manner. [Chen & You 2004: 1]
SemanticAssignmentSystem Update Definition value For natural language understanding, the process of fine-grain semantic role assignment is one of the prominent steps, which provides semantic relations between constituents. The sense and sense relations between constituents provide the core meaning of a sentence. Abstract semantic roles include thematic roles, such as agent, theme, and instrument, and secondary roles such as location, time, and manner. [Chen & You 2004: 1]
SemanticInverseVoice Update Definition value If the agent outranks the patient on the relevant generic topic hierarchy, the direct-active clause is used. If the relevant norm is reversed and the patient outranks the agent on the relevant hierarchy, the inverse clause is used. [Givon 1994: 23]
SemelfactiveAspect Update Definition value Momentaneous, without an inherent end-point, as sneeze [Michaelis 1998: xvi].
SingularNumber New Definition value Singular refers to one member of a designated class [Crystal 1980: 245; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 210].
SpeculativeForce Update Definition value SpeculativeForce indicates that the speaker considers, or 'entertains', the content of the expression. That is, it is in the realm of possibility, though the speaker does not necessarilty believe it. [Palmer 2001: 6-8, 25]
Stop Delete Definition value The property of sounds produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract.
Sublaminal Update Definition value Characterizing sounds produced by the underside of the tip of the tongue [Ladefoged 1997: 596].
Sublaminal Delete Definition value Characterizing sounds produced by the underside of the tip of the tongue [Ladefoged 1997, 596].
SubordinatingConnective Update Definition value A subordinating connective is a connective that links constructions by making one of them a constituent of another. The subordinating conjunction typically marks the incorporated constituent. [Crystal 1997: 370]
Substantive Update Definition value A substantive is a member of the syntactic class in which the names of physical, concrete, relatively unchanging experiences are most typically found whose members may act as subjects and objects, and most of whose members have inherently determined grammatical gender (in languages which inflect for gender) [Crystal 1997: 264; Givon 1984: 51-52; Payne 1997: 33].
Suffix New Definition value An affix, consisting of a letter, syllable, or syllables, that follows a stem or word, modifying its meaning. Suffixes may be inflectional or derivational. [Crystal 1987; Hartmann & Stork 1972; Pei & Gaynor 1980]
Suffix Update Definition value An affix, consisting of a letter, syllable, or syllables, that follows a stem or word, modifying its meaning. Suffixes may be inflectional or derivational. [Crystal 1987: 431; Hartmann & Stork 1972: 225; Pei & Gaynor 1980: 207]
Suffix Update Definition value An affix, consisting of a letter, syllable, or syllables, that follows a stem or word, modifying its meaning. Suffixes may be inflectional or derivational. [Crystal 1987: 431; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 225; Pei and Gaynor 1980: 207]
SuperessiveCase Update Definition value SuperessiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location on which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'on' or 'upon'. [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 207]
SuperlativeAdjective New Definition value That form of an adjective that expresses that the thing to which it refers possesses a certain quality or attribute to the highest or lowest degree when compared to any other thing. [Hartmann & Stork 1972; Pei & Gaynor 1980]
SuperlativeAdjective Delete Definition value suggested at E-MELD (no documentation yet)
SuperlativeAdjective Update Definition value That form of an adjective that expresses that the thing to which it refers possesses a certain quality or attribute to the highest or lowest degree when compared to any other thing [Hartmann & Stork 1972: 60; Pei & Gaynor 1980: 207].
SuperlativeAdjective Update Definition value That form of an adjective that expresses that the thing to which it refers possesses a certain quality or attribute to a greater extent than to any other thing [Hartmann & Stork 1972: 60; Pei & Gaynor 1980: 207].
SuperlativeAdjective Update Definition value That form of an adjective that expresses that the thing to which it refers possesses a certain quality or attribute to a greater extent than to any other thing [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 60; Pei and Gaynor 1980: 207].
Suprasegmental New Definition value Phonetic features extending over more than one segment, such as stress, length, tone, and intonation, which not properties of single consonants or vowels [Crystal 1987: 431; Ladefoged 2000: 276].
Suprasegmental Update Definition value Phonetic features extending over more than one segment, such as stress, length, tone, and intonation, which are not properties of single consonants or vowels [Crystal 1987: 431; Ladefoged 2000: 276].
Syllable New Definition value Ladefoged (2000: 276) contends that there is no satisfactory definition for this unit of speech, but that syllables seem to be necessary units in the mental organization and production of utterances. However, Crystal (1987: 431) defines the syllable as an element of speech that acts as a unit of rhythm, consisting of a vowel, syllabic, or vowel/consonant combination.
Syllable Update Definition value Ladefoged [2000: 276] contends that there is no satisfactory definition for this unit of speech, but that syllables seem to be necessary units in the mental organization and production of utterances. However, Crystal [1987: 431] defines the syllable as an element of speech that acts as a unit of rhythm, consisting of a vowel, syllabic, or vowel/consonant combination.
Syllable Update Definition value Ladefoged contends that there is no satisfactory definition for this unit of speech, but that syllables seem to be necessary units in the mental organization and production of utterances. However, Crystal defines the syllable as an element of speech that acts as a unit of rhythm, consisting of a vowel, syllabic, or vowel/consonant combination. [Crystal 1987: 431; Ladefoged 2000: 276]
SymmetricProperty New Definition value Properties may be stated to be symmetric. If a property is symmetric, then if the pair (x,y) is an instance of the symmetric property P, then the pair (y,x) is also an instance of P. For example, friend may be stated to be a symmetric property. Then a reasoner that is given that Frank is a friend of Deborah can deduce that Deborah is a friend of Frank. [McGuinness & van Harmelen 2004]
SymmetricProperty Update Concept parent
SymmetricProperty Update Concept parent
SyntacticArgument Update Definition value SyntacticArgument is the class of syntactic words that are fundamentally referable and non-relational [Anderson 1997: 15]. Proper names are the quintessential arguments, though pronouns and nouns possess argument properties.
SyntacticConstruction Update Definition value SyntacticConstruction is the class of grammar units that have syntactic structure, i.e., consisting of more than one syntactic word or construction in a syntactic configuration [Crystal 1980: 85-86].
Tap Delete Definition value Also known as a flap, the property of sounds produced when one articulator is forced against another.
TenseProperty Update Definition value Following [Comrie 1985: vii], we take tense to be the grammaticalisation of location in time. Tense Property is assigned to clauses on the basis of semantics: a tense value is selected for the clause from the range of tense values available in the given language. Tense Property is typically realised on the verb, but it may be found expressed multiply on different elements in the same clause. For example, tense may be found on more than one element of the verbal complex (e.g. in Kayardild [Evans 2003] or Paamese [Crowley 2002: 68], or on verbs as well as on certain spatial and temporal adverbs and certain prepositions in the same clause (e.g. in Malagasy [Randriamasimanana 1981: 355-367], [Keenan and Polinsky 1998: 566-567]. In the given language, the values of the Tense Property are assigned to the designated elements as a consequence of semantic choice, and all the available options of particular tense values expressing particular tense meanings can be described with a Tense Assignment System for that language. Since no languages have been found for which tense values are assigned by a Tense Distribution System (i.e. contextually, through agreement or government), Tense Property is not a Morphosyntactic Property. Instead, it is a Morphosemantic Property only.
TerminativeAspect Update Definition value Denotes the termination of an event [Bhat 1999: 92].
TerminativeCase Update Definition value TerminativeCase expresses the notion of something into but not further than (i.e., not through) the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'into but not through'.
TerminativeCase Update Definition value Cases expressing spatial relations (also semantic) can be grouped into four broad directional classes: cases expressing location ('at'), goal ('to'), source ('from'), and path ('through, along'). The basic terms for these are: locative, allative, ablative, and perlative. Additionally, the label terminative is used for a movement that goes all the way to its endpoint, and orientative - for a movement that goes only in the direction of its goal.. [Kibort 2008]
Thing New Definition value In Web Ontology Language, Thing is the superclass of all classes. The most basic concepts in a domain should correspond to classes that are the roots of various taxonomic trees. Every individual in the OWL world is a member of the class owl:Thing. Thus each user-defined class is implicitly a subclass of owl:Thing. Domain specific root classes are defined by simply declaring a named class. [McGuinness, Smith, & Welty 2004]
Thing Update Concept parent
Thing Update Concept parent
ThirdPerson Update Definition value Third Person is a person property that refers to the non-participant (other than the speaker and the addressee) [Crystal 1997: 285].
ThirdPersonProximative New Definition value Proximative refers to one or more non-participants that are in some way distinct/closer to the speaker than other non-particpants.
ThirdPersonProximative Update Definition value Proximative refers to one or more non-participants that are in some way distinct/closer to the speaker than other non-participants. Third person proximative contrasts with third person obviative. Often called 'Third Person Proximate' or '4th person'. [Kibort, 2008]
ThirdPersonProximative Update Definition value Refers to one or more non-participants that are in some way distinct/closer to the speaker than other non-participants. Third person proximative contrasts with third person obviative. Often called 'Third Person Proximate' or '4th person'. [Kibort, 2008]
ThirdPersonProximative Update Definition value Refers to one or more non-participants that are in some way distinct/closer to the speaker than other non-participants. Third person proximative contrasts with third person obviative. Often called 'Third Person Proximate' or '4th person'. [Kibort 2008]
TimitiveMood Update Definition value TimitiveMood encodes that the speaker fears something expressed in what is said [Palmer 2001: 13, 22].
Toneme New Definition value A stress or tonal element which in a tone language distinguishes two otherwise identical words or forms. [Hartmann & Stork 1972: 238; Pei & Gaynor 1980: 218]
Toneme Delete Definition value [No definition yet.]
Toneme Update Definition value A stress or tonal element which in a tone language distinguishes two otherwise identical words or forms. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 238; Pei and Gaynor 1980: 218]
TransitiveProperty New Definition value Those grammatical features which are used systematically to express certain relationships between the participants in a communicative situation and the actions, states, or circumstances in which they are involved [Hartmann & Stork 1972: 242].
TransitiveProperty Update Concept parent
TransitiveProperty Update Definition value Those grammatical features which are used systematically to express certain relationships between the participants in a communicative situation and the actions, states, or circumstances in which they are involved [Hartmann & Stork 1972: 242]. According to Hopper and Thompson [1980: 251] transitivity is traditionally understood as a global property of an entire clause, such that an activity is 'carried-over' or 'transferred' from an agent to a patient.
TransitiveProperty Update Concept parent
TransitiveProperty Update Definition value Those grammatical features which are used systematically to express certain relationships between the participants in a communicative situation and the actions, states, or circumstances in which they are involved [Hartmann & Stork 1972: 242]. According to Hopper and Thompson, transitivity is traditionally understood as a global property of an entire clause, such that an activity is 'carried-over' or 'transferred' from an agent to a patient. [Hopper & Thompson 1980: 251]
TransitiveVerb Update Definition value A transitive verb is a verb that takes a direct object, and describes a relation between two participants [Crystal 1997: 397; Payne 1997: 171].
TranslativeCase Update Definition value TranslativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun, or the quality of the adjective, that it marks is the result of a process of change [Lyons 1968: 299-301; Sebeok 1946: 17; Hakulinen 1961: 70]. X along, across Y.
TrialNumber Update Definition value Trial is a number property that quantifies the denotation of the nominal element so that it specifies that there are exactly three. In this example from Larike (alo), trialNumber is expressed on the pronoun: Ln Duma hima aridu naʔa Ln house that 1.TRIAL.EXCL own.it Ln 'We three own that house' Ln [Corbett 2000: 21]
Trill Delete Definition value The property associated with sounds caused from vibrations of the active and passive articulators as a result of air being forced between them.
VegetableGender Update Definition value Vegetable gender refers to inanimates and exists in some four-way gender systems, e.g., masculine, feminine, neuter, and vegetable as in Bininj Gun-wok [Evans 2003: 202].
Verbal Update Definition value A Verbal is a part of speech whose members typically signal events and actions; constitute, singly or in a phrase, a minimal predicate in a clause; govern the number and types of other constituents which may occur in the clause; and, in inflectional languages, may be inflected for tense, aspect, voice, modality, or agreement with other constituents in person, number, or grammatical gender [Crystal 1997: 409; Givon 1984: 52; Payne 1997: 47].
VisualEvidentiality Update Definition value VisualEvidentiality encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression through direct visual experience; they saw it [Palmer 2001: 57].
VocativeCase Update Definition value VocativeCase marks a noun whose referent is being addressed [Crystal 1980: 377; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 251; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 228].
VoiceProperty Update Definition value VoiceProperty is the class of properties that concern the grammatical encoding of the relationship between the verb and the nominals in a subject-predicate configuration. It selects a grammatically prominent syntactic constituent--subject--from the underlying semantic functions. In accusative language, the basic strategy is to select an agent as a subject [Shibatani 1988: 3]. It can be said that all voice systems mark the affectedness/nonaffectedness of sentential subjects [Klaiman 1988: 30]. Voice is also known as diathesis [Klaiman 1991: 323].
VolitiveForce Update Definition value VolitiveForce indicates that the speaker is willing to perform some action [Palmer 2001: 76].
WeakObligativeModality Update Definition value WeakObligativeModality indicates that an agent is under a moral obligation to perform the action expressed by the predicate [Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 186-187].