Copula ( Concept )
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Copula


Thing
      |_ Abstract
            |_ Linguistic Property
                  |_ Part Of Speech Property
                        |_ Predicator
                              |_ Verbal
                                    |_ Copula


Definition:

This term is used in grammatical description to indicate verbs which connect other elements of a clause while contributing little to no independent meaning. [Crystal 1980: 93]


Usage Notes

Examples
Language Code: eng Verbal Copula in English
2010-05-07 15:41:18

a. He is a teacher

b. The policeman seemed not at all satisfied

c. It got worse and worse


References:
[Hartmann and Stork 1972: 55]

Language Code: fin Verbal Copula in Finnish
2010-06-04 11:16:02
ystävä-nionpappi
friend-mycop.3sg.presvicar
‘My friend is a vicar.’

References:
[Fromm and Sadeniemi 1956: 115]

Language Code: heb Pro-Copula in Hebrew (Nonverbal Copula)
2010-06-04 11:18:03
Mošehustudent
Moshe3.sg.mstudent
‘Moshe is a student.’

References:
[Li and Thompson 1977: 428]

Language Code: kmn Particle Copula in Awtuw (Nonverbal Copula)
2010-06-04 11:19:49
wanporameyæn
1sgfoc/cophuman.being
‘I am a human being.’

References:
[Feldman 1986:148]

Language Code: sin Zero Copula in Sinhalese
2010-06-04 11:23:19
unnaeheehungakpresiddekene-k
heveryfamousperson-nom
‘He is/was a very famous person.’

References:
[Gair 1970: 145]

Language Code: rus Restricted Zero Copula in Russian
2010-06-04 11:44:06

a. ona vrač
she doctor
‘She is a doctor.’

b. on byl učenik-om
he be.m.pst pupil-instr
‘He was a pupil.’

In Russian, a zero copula is used in the present tense, whereas a full copula is mandatory for all other tenses.


References:
[Stassen 2008 p.c. with Maria Koptjevskaja-Tamm]


PropertiesValuesDefinition

User Submitted Issues
Status: Pending Not all copula are verbal - Anthony Aristar
2010-06-05 18:37:22

It is wrong to classify copula as a child of verbal. There are non-verbal copula such as pronoun and particle copula as well as zero copula as shown in the examples. Hence, this classification should be reconsidered.

Changed 'verb' in definition to elements

Also noticed the source for this is Stassen 2008 - We have Stassen 2005 in the bibliography but not 2008. Is the 2005 source correct?
-Matt